Seasonal Forecasts

In this homework assignment you will be considering seasonal forecasts for Kenya. Consider only 
countrywide answers to the questions. Include maps and other graphics where appropriate. 
A. ENSO influence 
1. When is (are) the main rainy season(s) in Kenya? 
Suggested resource: 
IRI Climatologies MapRoom: Seasonal Fraction of Annual Precipitation1
2. At what time(s) of the year is there an influence of the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on 
rainfall over Kenya? 
Suggested resource: 
IRI ENSO MapRoom: Historical Probability of Seasonal Gridded Precipitation Tercile Conditioned 
on ENSO2
(Note that the information in this MapRoom is available only for three?month seasons. In most 
cases, when analyzing teleconnections, scientists typically look at three?month periods. Three 
months are usually long enough to eliminate the effects of weather noise that may dominate 
shorter periods; and they are usually short enough for the background climatology to enable any 
teleconnections to operate through a consistent process. Most of your answers to subsequent 
sections should focus on the most appropriate three?month period(s).) 
3. Briefly explain how any ENSO influence(s) teleconnect to Kenya (100 words). 
Suggested resources: 
Black, E., J. Slingo, K. R. Sperber, 2003: An observational study on the relationship between 
excessively strong short rains in coastal East Africa and Indian Ocean SST. Monthly Weather 
Review, 131, 74 – 94. 
B. Seasonal Predictability 
1. Describe the skill?level of IRI’s seasonal rainfall forecasts for Kenya for the main rainy season(s). 
How does the skill compare to that for other parts of the world? 
Suggested resource: 
Verification of IRI’s Seasonal Climate Forecasts3
2. The World Meteorological Organization has established a set of “Global Producing Centres” 
 that produce seasonal forecasts on at least a quarterly basis. The GPCs are required to 

                                                             1    2   3     4  

provide measures of the skill of their models. These skill measures are collected and displayed 
by the “Lead Centre for Long?Range Forecast Standardized Verification System”. 
Which of the models provides the best level of skill for Kenya during the rainy season(s)? Use 
the mean square skill score (MSSS)5
. Information about the MSSS can be found under the 
Documentation link on the Lead Centre site. 
3. The IRI continues to take more care than any other global forecasting centre to represent the 
uncertainty in its forecasts reliably? Briefly describe the various ways in which the IRI tries to 
address the problem of estimating reliable probabilities for the forecasts (200 words). 
Suggested resources: 
Barnston, A. G., S. J. Mason, L. Goddard, L., D. G. DeWitt, and S. E. Zebiak, 2003: Multi?model 
ensembling in seasonal climate forecasting at IRI. Bulletin of the American Meteorological 
Society, 84, 1783?1796. 
Goddard, L., S. J. Mason, S. E. Zebiak, C. F. Ropelewski, R. Basher, and M. A. Cane, 2001: Current 
approaches to seasonal to interannual climate predictions. International Journal of 
Climatology, 21, 1111–1152. 
Mason, S. J., L. Goddard, N. E. Graham, E. Yulaeva, L. Sun, and P. A. Arkin, 1999: The IRI seasonal 
climate prediction system and the 1997/98 El Niño event. Bulletin of the American 
Meteorological Society, 80, 1853–1873. 
C. Seasonal Forecasts 
1. The IRI combines the information from the various models in question B.2 into a “Net 
Assessment”. This forecast is in “probabilistic” format. What did the IRI’s Net Assessment 
forecast indicate for the rainy season(s) this year? Explain how to interpret the probabilistic 
forecast (200 words). 
Suggested resources: 
IRI’s Seasonal Climate Forecasts

BA Social Care ACCS: Social Care practice aims to respond to the complex needs and issues facing families and vulnerable groups in contemporary Ireland

Essay Title 2018: “Social Care practice aims to respond to the complex needs and issues facing families and vulnerable groups in contemporary Ireland”. Discuss this statement with reference to a social care service user group of your choice. Your answer should provide a comprehensive understanding of your chosen group. It should also display an understanding of how a social care worker/service might respond to their needs. Word Count 1,500-2,000 words. 12pt, Times New Roman font style, 1.5-line spacing. Guide Please use essay guide/plan discussed during classes this semester. Marking Criteria 70 – 100% Excellent An excellent answer demonstrating an exceptional degree of independent reading, mastery of the key concepts relevant to the subject area and a strong degree of critical analysis. 60 – 69% Very Good A well written, well-organised answer demonstrating a strong understanding of the relevant concepts, good judgement in the application of key concepts relevant to the subject area and some evaluation and synthesis of the relevant issues. Focused reading is evident. 50 – 59% Good An answer demonstrating a good understanding of the main points and concepts. Includes essential material but is without the range of reading and interpretation deserving of a higher honour mark. 40 – 49% Satisfactory A satisfactory answer which demonstrates a general understanding of the key concepts.

Reading is limited but there will be some reference to essential material. The standard of writing may be weak in places. 0 – 39% Fail The answer fails to demonstrate that the basic material is understood. The answer fails to address the question, is incoherent and/ or fails to deal with the relevant concepts and issues to a sufficient degree. Extent of reading or research is very weak. – please submit the assessment to BL15 and attach a front cover sheet and plagiarism declaration. Some introductory guidelines on essay writing: The process of essay writing. 1. Read 2. Break down 3. Plan 4. read 5. write 6. edit and re-edit using check list! • Read the question and underline key words. • Break it down-what is it asking me to do? What does this mean? Define key terms • Plan-mind map what you intend to do. • Read-material relevant to the topic-class notes and course material, and documents/books sourced independently- take notes, summarise into your own words. • Write- begin to write- continuously refer back to the question when writing to check that you are not going off on a tangent. • Edit- Is this relevant? Have I said this already? Is this point clear? How can I say it another way? How does it relate to the question being asked? Have I provided evidence to support the point I am making?

Promoting Individual Health

Develop a plan to promote individual health and wellness supported by appropriate theoretical perspectives from the scenario.

The client would like the focus to be on Molly in the scenario as they are studying Adult Nursing.

Your introduction needs to answer the following questions:
1. What? Give a brief outline of what the plan is about. This is what is given in the assignment brief above.
2. How? Give a brief guide of the structure of the plan, that is, a brief chronological outline of the plan. You need to refer to the detailed guidance given below.
3. Why? Briefly give a rationale for your plan. In other words explain why promoting the health of the chosen individual is important. This could be relate to module learning outcomes; personal development plans; policy; research etc. In other words, define 1) health and 2) health promotion, stating why health promotion is important.

1. Identify an individual who can benefit from health promotion from your field of practice. Give a clear outline of the individual, focussing on the health needs that necessitate the need for health promotion.
2. Identify and discuss the bio-psychosocial factors that contribute to the health and wellbeing of the individual.
3. Clearly outline the activities that need to be undertaken in order to promote the health of the individual [you could include a detailed plan in an appendix]. You need to justify or give reasons for each of the actions that need to be undertaken.
4. Identify, discuss and evaluate the appropriateness of different approaches and strategies that can be utilised to promote the health of the individual.

1. Summary of key learning points identified within the plan.
2. Recommendations as to what needs to happen next be e.g. learning / development needs; policy or research etc.

Click here to request for this assignment help

How We Learn

2. Content of the Paper

After you have READ the review article, you will discover that the authors divide the study
methods into three categories:
• High utility
• Moderate utility
• Low utility
It is useful to read about ALL the study methods so you can learn which techniques are effective
and which are not.
Please select TWO of the FIVE study methods that are classified as high utility or moderate
utility. For the two methods that you select, provide the following information:
• A description of the study method.
• A summary of the evidence that demonstrates its effectiveness.
• An explanation of how you can use this study method for your own courses.
If the evidence includes a graph of experimental studies on learning, you can use a screen
capture tool to include the graph in your paper. If you do include a graph, make sure that you
explain what the graph is showing

Explain the process of gender socialisation in our society from either a conflict or functionalist perspective. Highlight at least two agents of socialisation and how they reinforce gender roles in a child’s life

Explain the process of gender socialisation in our society from either a conflict or functionalist

perspective. Highlight at least two agents of socialisation and how they reinforce gender roles in a

child’s life.

You have already done this essay for me in 500words but i have to do another which needs to go

more into details this is my first order number if it helps you go through it to continue with the

second one 81822053


word length 1500 words

acadamic resources only

1. Breaking down the Question (The introduction)

At this stage you may or may not have checked or read the readings for the essay on the reading list

on vUWS. Some students like to break down all three questions to help them decide which question

to pick. It is up to you if you want to do this. Breaking down the question is really about working out

what sociological ideas and concepts the question is about and what it is asking you to do with

them. Having a clear understanding of the essay question is an important step to answering it.

The following information should be in this section of your essay plan:

i. What is the key sociological concept or idea the question is using? This is one of the most

important parts of the question. You need to know what specific idea or concept from the unit the

question wants you to use.


ii. The question asks you to apply that sociological concept or use that concept on one, or maybe

more subjects or examples. You need to identify what those examples are. Let’s call these the subjects

of the question. The subject(s) of the question might be movies, a social event or aspects of

Australian society. iii. Next you need to understand how the question asks you to apply the

sociological concept or use them on the subjects. It might ask you to compare, contrast, explore,

explain or give ways. iv. When you apply a sociological concept to a subject you can also use a

sociological theory to help explain or explore or compare. Try to identify a sociological theory that

fits the question and explain why it works (this can be hard, but if you do it well you will be

rewarded with marks).

When you write the full essay, the information in this section will form part of the Introduction to

your essay. At this stage your introduction is more a brief paragraph, maybe only 100 words.

Once you start to understand the question you will also start to interpret the question. There are

choices for you to make about how you will answer the question, for example if the subject is a

movie you need to decide which parts of the movie you will write about. If the subject is Australian

Society, what parts of Australian society will you write about? Likewise what aspects of the

sociological concept will you use? How will theory fit with this? It is good to think about this before

you move on to the rest of your plan

How should you present this information in the essay plan?

There are two good ways

? You could present it like a short answer question. For example: ‘the sociological concept the

question uses is Social Inequality. Social Inequality is defined as ….’ ? Or you could use the information to create a paragraph that covers all the points (when it comes time to write your essay

you will have to do this. It is up to you if you do it now).

Do not use dot points. We need to see that you can write sentences and paragraphs


2. Defining the sociological concepts

You should provide a definition or explanation of the sociological concepts the question uses to

show you know what it is and can explain it. Make sure you provide a citation for the resource where

you got this definition from (probably your text book). You could use a direct quote for a definition,

but a better idea is to explain it in your own words (with a citation of course). This is called

paraphrasing. It shows strong understanding of the concept. If you can explain it in your own words,

then the marker is sure that you understand it.

You have some flexibility about where to put these definitions in your plan and essay, some students

like to put it in the introduction while others might start their key points with these definitions. The

point here is to make it clear to the marker that you are providing a definition. Maybe start that

sentence with words like, ‘X is a sociological concept that is defined as…’ or something like that.

Remember, there might be more than one concept, so you might end up providing a few different


The better your definitions of sociological concepts and ideas, the better you will do in this criteria.

3. Key Points and examples

An essay is a large answer to an essay question. Part of the reason it is large is that you not only have

to present an argument or a position as the answer, but also you have to defend that position with

evidence. As I mentioned in the lecture some students will read the essay question and know straight

away what they want their answer to be. Others will need to read all the readings before they know

what position they want to take. Both approaches are fine, but once you get to this stage you will

have to read the readings to get your key points. The key points are justifications for your position or

argument, but they must be defended with evidence from academic research.

Some points about key points:

Students often ask how many key points they should have in their essay. At university you are more

likely to be rewarded if you can get into depth on your key points. This reduces the number that you

can use. If you use too many key points, then instead of getting into depth you will start to

summarise the topic. Instead of showing your knowledge and understanding, you will just be

skimming the surface of the concept and the subjects. For this essay three or four key points would

be a good number.


Your key points need to flow from the break down of the question, they need to use the sociological

concept, the subject and topic of the essay and what you have been asked to do with them. This

year’s assessment is really about explaining the sociological concepts/ideas and applying them to a

topic. This means you will be able to provide examples that help show the marker that you

understand the sociological concepts.As they are part of a position or argument, the key points all need to relate to each other in a logical

way. Remember, the key points are meant to support the position or argument.

Within the key points it would be a good idea to have a sentence or two that explains how you are

going to use the sociological theory you have picked in the essay.

And lastly you need to include a least one citation for each key point. Make sure you acknowledge

what resource the idea or the evidence has come from.

4. Conclusion

Both your essay plan and your essay need a conclusion, but the one for your essay plan will be much

shorter. The conclusion for your essay will review your essay as a whole; you will mention your key

points to remind the marker of how great they were. You will also explain how these points come

together to defend your answer to the essay question.

In the plan you need to provide an outline of that summary. How will these points work together and

importantly, what is the ultimate concluding answer to the essay question?

How should you present this information in the essay plan?

Again, avoid dot points here. Instead use a few sentences to explain each key point. You only have

500 words for the plan in total so try to keep it tight. You can expand on the details in the essay.

Don’t forget to add the citations for each key point.

How should you present this information in the essay plan?

Again, avoid dot points. Try to summarise your key points in a sentence or two. Explain how they

support your argument/position. End the conclusion with a sentence or two that answers the essay

question or finishes the answer you have developed.


5. Organising the ideas and structuring the essay plan

We have included this in the criteria so we can reward student for giving their essays a clear structure

and writing clear paragraphs. Obviously you have the introduction, body and conclusion as structures

for the essay, but you also want to make sure that you have clear paragraphs within those sections.

For example, a different paragraph for each key point.

A paragraph should really be united around one central idea or point. That should be made clear in

the topic sentence, which is like an introduction for the paragraph. It tells the reader what the

paragraph will be about. Following the topic sentence is the body of the paragraph, the supporting

statements that provide detail and discuss the central idea of the paragraph. It is worth spending

some time on getting the order of these supporting sentences correct so they build meaning and

show understanding. You then end the paragraph with a concluding sentence that often takes the

central idea of the paragraph and relates it back to the essay question. Check out the example of an  essay plan to see a break down of the structure of a paragraph. We will talk about this in lectures as


Good writing takes time and practice. As you write more essays you will naturally get better,

especially if you pay attention to the feedback from the markers. One way to improve is to spend

more time editing and proof reading your work. We will talk about this in the lecture.

6. Research and Referencing

The last section of the criteria concerns what research you have done and how well you have

presented your references. You should refer to the Harvard guide on referencing and the Guide to

Academic Writing to make sure you citations in the plan and your reference list are correct; however

here are some specific points to check:

? Your text book should be one of your academic resources for the essay plan

? You can use 3 of the essay readings on vUWS in your plan

? In the end you should have 4­6 academic resources for the essay plan. You can use the ones we

have provided, or you can always go and find your own resources.

? For the essay you will need 6­10 academic resources. You don’t have to include them in your plan,

but if you do and they are good resources you will be rewarded with marks. It will also give the tutor

an opportunity to give you some feedback on the quality of the resources you found through your

own research.

School of Social Sciences and Psychology

Essay Writing Guide

This resource provides general guidance on essay writing. Firstly, it covers how to analyse and

understand an essay question. Secondly it outlines the basic structure of an essay and then explains

how to present your responses to the essay question in sequenced paragraphs, which include clear

topic sentences. Finally, the resource briefly explains in­text referencing techniques.

1. Analysing the essay question

It is important to read the essay question carefully and break it down into the following parts:

Type of word Purpose

Topic or content words Topic or content words tell you what you are going to write about. They

signal the issues and/or concepts you should concentrate on. These are generally easy to identify, as

they are the topics that you have studied in your Unit.

Task or process words Task or process words tell you what you need to do in relation to the topic,

for example discuss, argue, analyse, evaluate, or explain. Task or process words are usually verbs

(doing words), but may also be direct questions, such as ‘what’, ‘how’ or ‘in what ways’.

Focus or limiting words Limiting or focus words are the aspects of the topic you are asked to pay

particular attention to.

The following essay question example is broken down into the parts mentioned above:

Increasing the literacy levels of Indigenous Australian children is a national priority. Discuss the

challenges of this aim and identify researched solutions.

Topic words: literacy levels of Indigenous Australian children Task words: discuss; identify Focus

words: challenges; researched solutions

Analysing these parts can also provide you with a structure for the essay — that is how to order your

response into sequenced sections and paragraphs. For the essay question above this could be:

1) Explaining why increasing the literacy level of Indigenous Australian children is an aim of the


This could involve defining the term ‘literacy’; explaining why good literacy levels are of benefit to

individuals and communities; providing some historical or statistical information about the literacy

levels of Indigenous Australian children and quoting government documents that explain and give

reasons for its’ initiatives to improve them.


2) Giving reasons why this aim has been difficult to achieve

This part is about the challenges and is the discuss part of the question. It might involve reference to

information and theories in the Unit readings and your wider reading. It might involve pointing to

how researchers, politicians and /or the media have critiqued the governments’ actions to address the

aims or discussed wider social attitudes to the issues. This part of the essay would present a range of

perspectives to give an overview of how the issue is being debated.

3) Giving examples of solutions that researchers have offered to solve these difficulties

This is the identify part of the essay. This is where you focus in on what researchers have to say

about the issues (from your Unit readings and wider research). Here you pick out the

recommendations that researchers make in direct relation to the issues you raised in the section

above. Linking the answers you quote in this section to the issues/problems you raised in the

previous section would help your argument to flow and provide coherence between the sections.

NOTE: the above are suggestions only – the essay could be organised in other ways. Once your

sections are drafted you would then add or refine your introduction and write a conclusion that

restates the points and the main conclusions you have made. These aspects of an essay are explained


2. Essay structure

The structure of a piece of writing refers to the kinds of sections it is made up of. For example, a

journal article always begins with an abstract, which is a concise summary of the whole piece of

writing, whereas an essay does not. There are different ways to structure an essay, for example

sometimes sub­headings are used — this will depend on what your Unit lecturer expects. However the

basic structure of an essay is always: Introduction; Body; Conclusion. The following explains the key

features of these sections.

The introduction An introduction to an essay will give an overview of the essay topic (sometimes

called an orientation, or contextual statement) and sometimes restates in the writers own words, the

tasks that have been requested in relation to the topic.

Often the introduction will also provide brief definitions of the key terms, main concepts, ideas or

issues contained in the essay questions. These definitions show your reader your understanding of

the topics and terms you have been studying in the Unit.

The purpose of an essay is usually to persuade the reader to agree on the writer’s point of view. This

point of view is often called a thesis statement or argument. By the end of the introduction, your

reader should know the position you have taken in relation to the essay question. Your position

should be based on your evaluation of the evidence and ideas you find in your academic readings.

Finally, the introduction provides an outline of what is to come — that is, a sketch of the main points

you will make in the body of the essay to argue for the position you have taken. The outline in an

introduction will list the points in the order that they are made in the body. For example, the


introduction to this Essay Guide under the main heading tells you what this resource is about, and

then steps through the order of the contents: firstly…secondly…then…finally.

The example introduction below shows the main aspects of an essay introduction:

Critically assess whether Marx’s theory of alienation is still relevant to modern society.


**Thesis statement/argument


Marx’s theory of alienation originated in his analysis of the causes of the unequal distribution of

power, property and wealth in capitalist society over a century ago (1844)*. Because these

inequalities still exist, Marx’s theory of alienation remains highly relevant to modern society**. This

essay explains Marx’s theory of alienation then explores this idea as it relates to modern society. It will

then be argued that workers’ alienation from the processes of production has resulted in alienation

from their own creative human nature and, in competition for employment, in the alienation of

person to person***.

The body The body of an essay will be the bulk of the word count set by your lecturer. In the body

of an essay the ideas or main points contained in the introduction will be expanded on: explained,

discussed, analysed and critiqued. Each paragraph in the body explains one major idea that is

connected to the thesis statement or argument — think of paragraphs as building blocks that are

connected to make the whole argument.

When planning the body of your essay, it is important to decide what purpose each paragraph has.

For example, different purposes could be:

• To provide background information on the main topic of the assignment • To compare and contrast

information • To classify information • To show cause and effect

ACTIVITY: Look at the example essay question about the literacy levels of Indigenous Australian

children in section 1 of this guide – Analysing the task. Under the three suggested parts for this essay

question, some options are given for the kind of ideas that could go under each. Think about how

these points could be ‘chunked’ into paragraphs — which ideas could be chunked together, and

which might need their own paragraph?

The conclusion The conclusion reviews and sums up your essay by restating the main points that

have served to build your argument. The conclusion should leave your reader convinced of the

strengths of your thesis or argument, and so it is essential to briefly restate the thesis that you

announced in the introduction. A conclusion is where you further persuade your reader and

qualifying words or phrases can be used, for example “The evidence presented in this essay is

convincing because….”; “There is strong agreement among theorists that….”; “The critical analysis of

issues in this essay provides support for the idea that…”


It is important that a conclusion does not introduce any new material or ideas, or make claims that

are not supported by or covered in the previous sections of the essay.

3. Paragraph structure

A paragraph addresses and expands on one key point and could be described as a ‘mini essay’ in that

it has a clear introduction (contextual and topic sentences), body (sentences that expand, explain

and provide evidence for the point made in the topic sentence) and a conclusion (a summary

sentence that states the importance of the information presented in the paragraph). In summary, a

paragraph has at least two, but sometimes three parts, to its structure.

? A topic sentence that presents the main idea of the paragraph

? Supporting sentences in the form of explanations, elaboration, examples or evidence

? A concluding sentence that signals the importance of the paragraph and links it back to the

assignment question and/or to the next paragraph

TIP: When reviewing your writing, count how many ideas are in a paragraph. Are they all clearly

connected in that they support the main point? If not, could an idea/point be pulled out and formed

into a paragraph of its own?

4. Topic sentences

A topic sentence sets up ‘the business’ of the paragraph, making clear what point will be expanded

on. A topic sentence usually appears at the beginning of a paragraph. It may be preceded by a

general, contextual sentence.

The topic sentence in the example paragraph below has been underlined. From this sentence, we

know that the paragraph will be about the difference between adults and children who are learning to

speak English. In particular, it will be about accents (pronunciation). The rest of the paragraph gives

(researched) reasons why there is a difference in pronunciation between adults and children.

Pronunciation is one area of second language acquisition where children seem to have an advantage

over adults. Whereas adults normally retain an accent long after they have reached fluency, children

usually manage to speak a second language with little or no accent (McLaughlin, 1984, p. 53). This

difference has been attributed to biological causes. For example, Lenneberg (cited in McLaughlin,

1984, p. 46) claims that after puberty “the brain has lost its plasticity”. The result is that children

possess a capacity for excellent phonological representation, which adults have lost.

5. Referencing techniques

This section gives a brief overview of ways to use in­text references, either by paraphrasing (writing

about another authors ideas, but in your own words), or by direct quotations (using the exact words

of another author). In both cases you need to make clear that the idea belongs to someone else. The

table below shows the main difference between direct quotes and paraphrases. The examples below


the table show how a direct quote is presented and then how that same quote has been paraphrased

and referenced.

Direct quotations Paraphrases

Match the original source word for word Do not match the source word for word

Are usually a brief segment of the text, often woven into the essay writer’s own sentence

Are passages from a source put into your own words

Appear between quotation marks “…” Change the words or phrasing of a text, but retains and fully

communicates the original meaning

Must be attributed to the original source and include the page number (if available, if not, use n.d.


Must be attributed to the original source, but does not need to provide a page number.

Example of direct quoting

Drake (2001) describes family historians as “generative individuals” who are concerned to record and

preserve personal histories for posterity and who “encourage the sharing of records, the open

distribution of materials, and the interconnections of persons” (p. 5).

Example of a paraphrase of the passage above

It is important to family historians that their records are kept and shared so that future generations

can benefit from them. They believe their work helps to bring people together (Drake 2001, p.5).

Every source you use in your writing, whether it is a direct quote or a paraphrase must be listed in a

separate Reference List at the end of your essay. A Style Guide is the set of instructions for formatting

both in­text references and for formatting the final Reference List. You will need to consult the

Harvard Style Guide to complete your essay.

And finally…….

This resource is a general guide only. There are many excellent academic writing resources on the

internet and it is worthwhile searching through them to find ones that are of particular use to you.

The Library Study Smart website on the WSU website provides links to a range of resources that

include guides for other genres of writing such as reports, annotated bibliographies and literature

reviews, as well as resources for English grammar and punctuation.

You will also find information about free skills workshops and programs on the HALL website

These are available at:

Click here to request for this assignment help

The Concept of a Public Good




Community Informatics


Community informatics refers to the appropriation and use of a diverse range of information technologies and digital solutions by community networks, co-operatives, and community organisations specifically to contribute towards expanding capacities, enabling agency, increasing empowerment, strengthening knowledge development and management and fostering digital applications in development. It is critically a needs based approach and based on the community playing a key role in defining needs, making decisions, operationalising projects and using technology for very specific local ends.


The Concept of a Public Good


At the core of CI is a commitment to social inclusion and the exploration of a number of digital interventions and solutions in areas as diverse as education, governance, cultural development and health and to complement such interventions with other ongoing offline interventions in development. So essentially access to, use and ownership of information and information infrastructures ought to be seen as a ‘public good’. A public good as opposed to a private good is available to all citizens as for example public broadcasting signals or the source code in open source software that is potentially available to all users. From economics, we understand that a public good is based on the principles of non-exclusivity (public goods are for everyone) and non-rivalrousness (your consumption and mine of this resource will not deplete it in any way or lessen its quality). There has been a global movement to ensure that education is a public good and not a private resource and that the global public sphere as a public good is expanded and no fettered by unnecessary IP enclosures. While a public good might suffer from negative externalities – for example the overuse of a park might result in a lessening of its public benefits, and the overuse of a road that has not been maintained may also result in negative consequences, in general when we refer to a public good we refer to ‘intangibles’ such as digital information that in theory can be available to all. There are theorists such as Karl Polyani who have argued that it is precisely because of the failure of markets to act in the public interest that governments have been forced to try and provide a level playing field in health, education, access to culture and the protection of the commons. Karl Polanyi’s assessments of market fundamentalism and counter movements directed towards curbing its excesses can also be drawn upon to make sense of the contested nature of informational capitalism. Polanyi in The Great Transformation (1944)[1] provides a strong critique of market fetishism and market fundamentalism, of a market that is often described as a stand-alone entity that is disembedded from the ‘social’ and social relationships. Polanyi also highlights what he refers to as a ‘double movement’, capitalism’s excesses that are met with counter-movements aimed at bringing back some equilibrium in the market-wage labour relationship and the place of the ‘social’. Polanyi famously described land, labour and money as fictitious commodities, the meanings of which have been socially constructed and manufactured and that is crucially based on a denial of Nature that we have inherited and that ought to be considered the patrimony of humankind. Polanyi engaged with the nature and consequences of ‘improvement’ and growth and the role played by an earlier generation of technologies in transforming the means and relations of production. “The Industrial revolution was merely the beginnings of a revolution as extreme and radical as ever inflamed the minds of sectarians, but the new creed was utterly materialistic and believed that all human problems could be resolved given an unlimited amount of material commodities”. Substitute the Information revolution in place of the Industrial revolution and what one sees is the very same belief in technologies resolving deep contradictions in society.


Arguably, Obamacare is one of the latest responses to market failure.  Governments have traditionally been involved in distributing public goods and the best example of this are welfare states, although most if not all welfare states have rolled back their commitment to public goods in the context of neo-liberalism and the pressures from private interests.  And rather famously knowledge is non-rivalrous:


“Your knowledge of a fact or idea does not block mine, and mine does not block yours.  Thomas Jefferson described this situation beautifully in an 1813 letter to Isaac McPherson:  “If nature has made any one thing less susceptible than all others of exclusive property, it is the action of the thinking power called an idea….Its peculiar character…is that no one possesses the less, because every other possesses the whole of it.  He who receives an idea from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine, receives light without darkening mine.”  (See H.A. Washington, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, printed by the United States Congress, 1853-54, vol. VI, p. 180.) – Peter Suber, Knowledge as a Public Good –



Examples of CI can include but is not limited to farmers belonging to a telecom coop receiving agricultural pricing in real time over their mobiles and/or their access to online agricultural knowledge during the various stages in the agricultural season. It could also be an app developed by an NGO for migrants trying to get into the USA through Mexico that has information on where drinking water can be found in the desert. It could be a community’s online repository of knowledge of indigenous medicinal practices or a functioning telecom cooperative in a remote part of Mexico. Or providing ‘civic bandwidth’ through Wi-Fi solutions in public areas such as parks and urban centres. The solutions in other words are expansive and extensive – from collective solutions such as telecentres along with e-commerce and e-trade solutions at a local level to help artisans and women’s organisations sell handicrafts  to effective use of targeted health messaging for individuals – for expectant mothers and new mothers and information on the availability of seed and best practices in organic farming. In other words CI is based on an understanding that access to digital information and knowledge is of primary importance in a world in which such access has begun to define one’s quality of life. Information has become a primary resource that is key to the fulfilment of social, economic, political and cultural objectives. CI is concerned with bridging the digital divide that exists everywhere.  At the core of CI is the enabling of communities to control knowledge and networks to their advantage through disintermediation. Cutting out the middle man thereby increasing the transparency of information and possibilities for independence and inclusivity. The solutions typically strengthen both weak and strong community. Strong communities are characterised by shared frameworks of understanding of a given intervention, community involvement in the planning and implementation of a given project and characterised by collective belief in the worth of its impact on the local community. Weak community is normally the outcome of informatics in development that is of a top-down nature.


While it is relatively straightforward to argue that a community-owned enterprise has better prospects for service delivery and sustainability over time – whether in the provision of information or for that matter agricultural products, it is by no means easy to set up or for that matter fund community owned solutions. However and in the context of CI, there have been developments that have spurred innovation in CI. These include the availability of new wireless and other technologies ( WiFi, WiMax based on open standards) open source software solutions, opportunities for VoiP, the availability of spectrum and regulatory policy that upholds such provisioning and examples from around the world of the successful provisioning of CI. We sometimes forget the fact that telecom coops in the USA were responsible for connectivity in large parts of the USA from the 1920s onwards. There are still close to a 1000 telecom coops servicing remote areas and farming communities in the USA. One of the reasons for the strength of such coops has been their ability to control ‘last mile’ options meaning cabling from the local exchange to individual households One of the major obstacles is the role played by both commercial and public telecom monopolies who have traditionally been unable to extend connectivity to remote areas or to communities who have not had the resources to pay for such services. The role that they have played in obstructing community access has been problematic to say the least although over the last few years, from Poland to Argentina, Mexico and Papua, telecom coops have been established. The fact remains that community-based approaches have not been given due consideration by authorities simply because in the context of neo-liberal growth models, the accent was on the private sector delivering such services. This position was supported by supra-national institutions such as the ITU and basically became the global norm for the delivery of telecom services. These examples along with many others highlight the fact that a community does have the ability to mobilise resources at low cost or no cost, are ready to share labour, the use of community facilities, are non-profit in orientation, take a needs-based approach and can plough back any surplus into the development of the network that is in line with local needs.


The issue of ownership is central to CI. It is generally agreed that direct and ongoing involvement and influence by the community helps service delivery. In the context of CI ownership services can be 1) implemented by local government on behalf of the community, 2) can be delivered by NGOs on behalf of the community, 3) can be based on user coops owned and run by the community in which each member is a share-holder with equal power, 4) based on community coops where all members of a village whether users or not have a share and voting power, 5) Worker coops, 6) public-private initiatives that have a community element.


A critical approach to CI eschews a celebratory account of the digital and opts for a contextually grounded approach in which technology is one important driver, among many others in social change. There are a number of popular writers such as Alvin Toffler and scholars such as Nicholas Negroponte and Henry Jenkins who are technology optimists and who believe that digital solutions are the answer to the world’s many intractable problems. However, as the history of previous generations of technologies reveal, it pays to invest in contextual understandings of technology and to learn from the history of such interventions. At the same time, it makes sense to not take the attitude of a Luddite given the real opportunities that CI offers to community development. However, we need to also take note of the fact that there are those who find solace in solutions that are off the grid as it were. In other words just as there is a right to remain silent, people also have the right to opt for other than technology-based solutions. It is important that we give some consideration to the possibility of the grid failing and its consequences for the majority of humankind who are now dependent on multiple information-based mediations for their survival on a day to day basis.  CI needs to be seen as an essential aspect of community development particularly in the extension of capacities, education, mobilisation and organisation skills at the level of community. The nature of agency in a CI project is bound to differ from project to project. Arguably, most CI projects are oriented towards maximising the efficiencies of employing digital technologies in social change. While the community may learn how to use social media and computing, it is not often not the case that communities learn about understanding hardware and software – so that these can be appropriated for local uses. Curry (1995) makes the point that “It is helpful….to distinguish between knowing how and knowing that. Knowing how refers to the ability to do something, the ability of the average person, say, to use a computer, to enter data, or to do analysis using simple, perhaps menu-driven routines. Knowing that refers to knowledge about how something works”. However, one cannot argue against knowing how given that digital literacy is important in a world that has become digital. The digital divide in other words needs to be seen as one aspect of other divides – economic, social, cultural and political and is also about the lack of capacity and understanding that can make a difference. CI in a real sense offers possibilities to educate and upskill people on how to tackle the divides facing them although the quality of that education and the learning and use of skills is bound to vary from project to project.


There are two sides to community informatics – the community that can be geographically bound or dispersed and informatics that refers to digital programming, social networking, content production and management and so on by the community. Like a number of other words used in the social sciences, community is a multi-accentual term that lends itself to multiple meanings. It denotes a group of people bound by common interests and who collectively acknowledge and contribute towards solutions that make a difference in their lives. While dealing with community, we need to acknowledge the force of networked individualism that characterises the predominant relationship between new technologies and its users. CI however is characterised by its intentionality – the intentional uses of information technologies to make a difference in people’s lives.  It makes sense to understand Community to specifically refer to any people who are equally deprived and who are equally interested in solutions that offer them opportunities to use information, to network and create possibilities for change. In any collective that is characterised by diversity in status and socio-economic positioning, community is bound to be a lot more difficult to invoke and operationalize via projects. Critical CI acknowledges the fact that all technologies are shaped by human interests, and that, as such, artefacts such as social media platforms and mobile phones are shaped by political economic and other factors that are deeply embedded in these technologies. The uses of these technologies by communities will involve both following its prescribed, mainstream uses as well as its appropriations – through the sharing, creating and use of code, embracing the principle of openness, contributions towards its design and engineering solutions that increase access and affordable uses of technologies. Critical CI is based on an understanding that digital divides are an aspect of other divides in society and that solutions can be based on community informatics rather than the networked individualism that is a hallmark of technology-mediated relationships in our contemporary world. So in a sense the objective of a critical CI is to strengthen collaborative identities as opposed to individual identity that is the very basis for identity in the transactional environments that we are in. Critical CI attempts to displace the controlling power of networks to define the nature of interactivity and participation through their control of algorithms and to replace it with a network that is shaped by a community and their use of open technologies – both hardware and software, thus strengthening their autonomy and independence.


While community is of course an important factor in CI, so are legal structures supportive of CI, co-partnerships with civil society, the state and the private sector and regulations that are supportive of spectrum sharing, license-exempt spectrum, favourable interconnection pricing, tax exemptions, supportive political environments,  open access solutions, access to favourable financing and investments in local capacity building. CI in other words is based on a meshing of a variety of networks that need to act together from the same page to make long term difference that is sustainable.


Michael Gurstein (2012:43), in an edited volume on CI and its uses among indigenous communities in Canada makes the following observations – “It is thus not surprising that the resistance and alternatives to this totalization comes from opportunities and frameworks that enable the individual to overcome the fragmentation and to integrate their identity and, more importantly, find the means for entering into collaborative relationships. This process of reintegration is necessarily theoretically, and practically the discovery or rediscovery of a community and of organic and integrated inter-individual relationships, rather than purely contractual an electronically fragmented internetworked connections”.

[1] Polanyi, K. (1944), The Great Transformation: The Political and economic origins of our time, Beacon Press Books, Boston

Click here to request for this assignment help

IT: E-commerce

The owner of your business wants to focus on generating new revenue through e-commerce, but she knows that this change in operations requires the company to integrate new technology. To gain an understanding of what the business might need for technology, she has asked you to create a business systems analysis.

1: Technology Solutions:
In this section, you will discuss how each of the two technologies meets the technology requirements that you identified in section II. Use your decision matrix to guide your responses. 

A. Technology One: Explain how well this technology meets the technology requirements of your business. Be sure to address which technology requirements the technology meets, and where there are gaps.

B. Technology Two: Explain how well this technology meets the technology requirements of your business. Be sure to address which technology requirements the technology meets, and where there are gaps.

Recommendations: In this section, you will recommend the technology solution that you believe is most appropriate for your business based on how well each technology meets your business’s technology requirements.

A. Recommend a technology solution for your business, and defend why that solution is appropriate. You could recommend only one technology, or you could recommend any combination of the two that you investigated.

B. Explain the overall benefit of your recommended technology solution to your business. Consider the following:

– How will it enhance efficiency?
– How will it position your business for future growth as you move online?

Click here to request for this assignment help

Mobile-assisted Language Learning and English Language Aqcuisition

Click here and consider this done.

Order Description

I would like you to write a proposal for PhD degree. Universities did not accept my previous applications because of my proposal. My topic is about how mobile devices affected the language acquisition of English learners in Saudi Arabia. The department that I am going to apply to is applied linguistics and languages.  Most of the universities asks for the followings:
1- A Working Title of the Topic Area
2-Identification of the Relevant Literature:
Lack of organisation and structure
Lack of focus, unity and coherence
Repetition of information
Failure to cite influential papers
Failure to keep up with recent developments
Failure to critically evaluate cited papers
Citing irrelevant or trivial references
Dependent too much on secondary sources
3- Key Research Questions
4- Methodology
5-Timescale/Research Planning
6- Bibliography
You should include a short list of references to key articles and texts included in the application.

Click here and consider this done.

Pollutants found in Newtown Creek, Queens, Brooklyn, NY Superfund Site.

 You will be writing about this superfundsite: Ridgewood Queens, NY (site of former Wolff-Alport Chemical Company) -please use the website provided to help you with the assignment. Answer the following questions in this order in the essay: 1. What is the problem or issue that you are addressing? For example, what pollutants are found in these locations? 2. Describe the historical perspective on this problem/issue. Include the background information on how this became a problem/issue. 3. When were the problems/issues realized and what kinds of risk assessments were done in order to realize the problem/issue? Refer to Toxicology Tutor to help you better understand Risk Assessment ( 4) What are the potential toxins that may have affected a community? 5) What media (e.g. soil, air, water, etc.) did those toxins travel through?

Literature,Analyze how pearl functions to illuminate the traits and conflicts of other characters and/or to help Hawthorne state his thesis.

Answer question #4. Thesis and paper needs to include: analysis of pearl and how she functions, help Hawthorne state his theme through the symbolism of pearl, and the qualities of major characters which she brings out, and pearls development. Double spaced, Microsoft word