Case Study # Opthalmic: Cataracts & Glaucoma

Case Study #7a Opthalmic: Cataracts & Glaucoma


Most Cataracts are caused by natural aging. Old, dead cells build up in your eyes’ lenses, causing them to become cloudy. When light passes through the lens to the retina, images become distorted and your vision is impaired.


Cataracts tend to develop slowly and can take years to mature. Because there isn’t a sudden overnight deterioration, you may not be able to detect the symptoms of cataracts or the effect they have on your vision. An annual visit to your eye care professional can help identify cataracts early on, but there are symptoms (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. you can look for, including:


Cloudy vision


Difficulty seeing at night
Halos around lights
Frequent changes in glasses or contacts prescriptions
Double vision in one eye
Poor night vision
Light sensitivity
Seeing faded colors
When an eye disease displays no obvious symptoms, it is known as “asymptomatic eye disease.” An example of this is Glaucoma, which is often called “the silent thief of sight” because it shows no symptoms until it causes irreversible vision loss. Glaucoma can be detected in the early stages by a comprehensive eye exam, which is why it’s so important to have regular eye checkups. Another example of an asymptomatic eye disease is diabetic retinopathy.


Glaucoma damages the optic nerve due to internal pressure on the nerve, the nerve responsible for transmitting information from the eye to the brain. The symptoms include:


Blindness, Blurred Vision, Burning Eyes , Changes in Vision Cloudy Vision


Difficulty Driving at Night ,Dry Eyes, Eyestrain, Gritty Eyes,. Headaches, Itchy Eyes


Light Sensitivity , Red Eyes, Seeing Spots , Severe Eye Pain ,Tunnel Vision. Watery Eyes




1. What is a cataract?


2.What are cataract symptoms?


3.How do I know if I have glaucoma and what is the normal pressure


Does having high eye pressure mean I will my lose vision?


5. Can you have cataracts and glaucoma at the same time?




Case Study #7b Auditory


Three Types of Hearing Loss


Conductive hearing loss – when hearing loss is due to problems with the ear canal, ear drum, or middle ear and its little bones (the malleus, incus, and stapes).


Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) – when hearing loss is due to problems of the inner ear, also known as nerve-related hearing loss.
Mixed hearing loss. – refers to a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. This means that there may be damage in the outer or middle ear and in the inner ear (cochlea) or auditory nerve.
Sensorineural Hearing Loss Causes:
Exposure to loud noise
Head trauma
Virus or disease
Autoimmune inner ear disease
Hearing loss that runs in the family
Aging (presbycusis)
Malformation of the inner ear
Meniere’s Disease
Otosclerosis – a hereditary disorder in which a bony growth forms around a small bone in the middle ear, preventing it from vibrating when stimulated by sound.
Treatment of 8Types of Sensorineural Hearing Loss:
Sensorineural hearing loss can result from acoustic trauma (or exposure to excessively loud noise), which may respond to medical therapy with corticosteroids to reduce cochlea hair cell swelling and inflammation to improve healing of these injured inner ear structures.


Sensorineural hearing loss can occur from head trauma or abrupt changes in air pressure such as in airplane descent, which can cause inner ear fluid compartment rupture or leakage, which can be toxic to the inner ear. There has been variable success with emergency surgery when this happens.


Sudden sensorineural hearing loss, presumed to be of viral origin, is an otologic emergency that is medically treated with corticosteroids.


Bilateral progressive hearing loss over several months, also diagnosed as autoimmune inner ear disease, is managed medically with long-term corticosteroids and sometimes with drug therapy. Autoimmune inner ear disease is when the body’s immune system misdirects its defenses against the inner ear structures to cause damage in this part of the body.


Fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss may be from unknown cause or associated with Meniere’s Disease


Symptoms of Meniere’s disease are hearing loss, tinnitus (or ringing in the ears), and vertigo. Meniere’s disease may be treated medically with a low-sodium diet, diuretics, and corticosteroids. If the vertigo is not medically controlled, then various surgical procedures are used to eliminate the vertigo.


Sensorineural hearing loss from tumors of the balance nerve adjacent to the hearing nerve, generally are not reversed with surgical removal or irradiation of these benign tumors. If the hearing loss is mild and the tumors are very small, hearing may be saved in 50 percent of those undergoing hearing preservation surgery for tumor removal.


Sensorineural hearing loss from disease in the central nervous system may respond to medical management for the specific disease affecting the nervous system. For example, hearing loss secondary to multiple sclerosis may be reversed with treatment for multiple sclerosis.


Irreversible sensorineural hearing loss, the most common form of hearing loss, may be managed with hearing aids. When hearing aids are not enough, this type of hearing loss can be surgically treated with cochlear implants


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