The Connections Between Four Different Unrelated Pieces Of Literature

The Connections Between Four Different Unrelated Pieces Of Literature

The essay will take four different unrelated pieces of literature that includes; A & P by John Updike, Harlem Dancer by Claude McKay, the Prison by Bernard Malamud and The Right to Fail by William Zinsser. The connections between each of them will be then analyzed out so as to form a unique claim. In the short story A & P, the author John Updike describes the customers with great detail and on the other hand gives each character the names which subtlety describes their personalities. However in Harlem Dancer by Claude McKay, the author is against the habit of judging the books without the covers more than what a person can give. Bernard Malamud is a renowned and well respected American Jewish writer born in 1914 and died in 1986. His work includes novels, collections, nonfiction, and short stories. Most of what is featured in his writing is human conditions of Jewish life through his experience while growing up in New York. William zinner was a journalist and non fiction writer. As a teacher, his career began on New York Herad Tribune. His most famous work was a book on writing well, his books range from memoir, commentary, baseball, and craft of writing and so on.

In the stories of A & P by John Updike and Harlem Dancer by Claude McKay, the authors seemed to have something common in their literary works. The connection of the two stories is that, the story of A & P by John Updike, the narrator eyes are caught by three barefoot girls in their bathing suits while checking groceries. However in Harlem Dancer by Claude McKay, the poem talks about beautiful young prostitute woman, half-clothed body sway who entertains people with her dancing but she is not happy when she does so, but covers it up by smiling (Claude pg 123, 2004). In both the two scenarios, the stories show the exposure of the nakedness of the women that makes the stories to look somehow similar.

In Bernard Malamud’s the prison, he suggests that for a person to be fully a man they should accept the limitations that are most painful (Bernard pg 142 2013). He further states that those that escape the limitations are only able to achieve self-negating kind of freedom that is illusionary as they come out as less responsible human beings. He states that life is full of struggles and only the ability to overcome this struggles will make one successful. In William Zinsser’s right to fail he talks of a person’s right to take risks and chances. He further states that it is not wrong to make mistakes .so that one can be successful it is required that they fail a number of times so that they can discover their weaknesses and strengths. The writer underlines the reasons why people should not be afraid of failure since most people want to be successful they should know that even if they fail there is always room for doing a different thing. Both writers acknowledge the fact that there are challenges in life that can cause someone to make mistakes. They both suggest that the ability to overcome these challenges or deal with these mistakes accordingly will make someone successful.

Works Cited

Baraceros Henry “English for a Better World. The Right to Fail by William Zinsser. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013.

Malamud, Benard . “Bernard Malamud.” Fantastic Fiction. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013. <>.

McKay, Claude . “The Harlem Dancer, by Claude McKay.” Poetry Archive | Poems. N.p., 2004 Web. 11 Mar. 2013. <>.

The Constitution Amendments

The Constitution Amendments



The Constitution Amendments

A constitutional amendment is usually an added correction or formal change mainly in the current written constitutions text of a state or nation. The constitution text itself is sometimes altered in some jurisdictions while others don’t change but the recommended effects change with the amendments.

It is with the above understanding that a formal amendment can then be described as change in the constitutions language in relation with the outlined procedures stipulated in the article v document. Its procedures description is stated as requiring a majority vote of two-thirds in both the Senate and the house, after which the proposal that is approved by the congress is sent for ratification by the state.

The process of amending or changing the constitution can be said was made challenging intentionally by the founders since their initial goal was to make the constitution more stable in order to serve even the coming generations. They took into account that once a new government is entrenched it would sideline or ignore laws that would reduce its hold on power and in this account they intentionally included in article V, a separate amendment process that would keep in check the president, congress and the Supreme Court (Antonin, al, 1998).

The informal amendment process indicates to changes in the application or interpretation of the constitution. This would extend to refer to expansion in the rights within the constitution like voting, to even previously excluded groups, or rights curtailing, that mainly depend on the previously held congress or court justice constitutional beliefs. Such changes usually happen due to the effects caused by the decisions made by the judiciary, usually by the congressional legislation or Supreme Court that are not considered as unconstitutional. It is however vital to note that the constitution is not affected in any way by the informal amendment process, just by its application and understanding, that is in a constant influx state due to the devolving or evolving sociopolitical conditions.

Strict constitution constructions refer to the strict application of the initial laws written by law or in the constitutions text. Subsequently, loose construction implies to the flexibility to do whatever an individual wants as long as they are not stated as illegal within the constitution. The two divergent perspectives aligns with formal versus informal methods of change due to their application in that the informal application tends to have more strict construction characteristics, while the informal method tends to align more with the loose construction which dictates the federal government to go against the usual stipulated laws within the constitution(Kenneth,al,2012).

I particularly favor the loose construction method since its application allows for flexibility and this gives it a more humane and dynamic aspect in that like humans it is susceptible to changes. This freedom in the application is in contrast to the strict constructionism which is too rigid in its application and requires a strict application of particular judicial and legal philosophy interpretations that restrict and limit the implementation of the judicial and does not allow for any divergence once chosen.

The main reasons to support the loose constructionism or living constitution is in the constitutions concept that implies that the constitutional interpretation application is silent in itself, the elements of the living constitution indicate that the founders, most of who were legal theorists and lawyers, were already aware of the underlying issues, which means that they knew beforehand the implications and confusion that would have arose due to the lack of clear interpretation of the constitution. In addition this implies that if the founders intended the constitution to be interpreted differently by future generations they would have indicated it, and the lack of such clause indicate clearly that there was no such intention and there was never intended to be a fixed method of interpreting the constitution.

In relation to the above pragmatic argument, it is evident that if judges were not allowed to participate in the constitutional rights interpretation, the current modern society values would not have been reflected more, and this would have necessitated a recurrent amendment to incorporate the changes which has never happened.

Another reason for the preference would be on the aspect of not viewing the living constitution as the governing society’s foundational concept and not simply as just a law. This is in the understanding that laws in order to be followed have to be clear and fixed, and if the constitution can be looked at as more than a set of laws can provide the foundation for the laws since they will act as guidance and in this way the benefits and costs of such fixed concept and meanings will be different.


Antonin Scalia and Amy Gutmann, (1998) A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 36–41

Kenneth Dautrich, David A. Yalof (2012) The Enduring Democracy, engage Learning. Print

The constitution is one of the highest symbols of unity


Students Name

Institution of Affiliation

Course Title


The Constitution

The constitution is one of the highest symbols of unity that acts to protect the citizens of a country. The constitution was set up to make the new government strong enough such that it could be able to promote commerce and as well protect the properties of the United States citizens. The constitution also is responsible for the prevention of the threats that gets imposed by the excessive democracy, thereby regulating the abuse of democracy and its meaning. In encouraging the popular consent of the constitution, the House of Representatives is designed such that it is directly responsible to the people while the Senate against the potential for the excessive in the house. The United States Constitution provides a direct popular election of the representatives besides the protection of its citizens’ rights and liberties. The constitution grants the Congress important and influential powers while any power not enumerated in the texts is reserved for the States. The Constitution was designed to institute a presidency with energy capable of making timely and decisive actions in regards to the public interests. The framers of the constitution established the Supreme Court that would be responsible for the nationalizing the governmental powers as well as checking the radical democratic impulses while at the same time guiding against the potential interference with the liberty and the property of the new national government itself.

The framers’ concerns are addressed by the various provisions of the constitution of national unity and power including the clause for the promotion of reciprocity among the state. The amendment of the constitution is not an easy process as the procedures for the amendment found in Article V are so difficult and difficult. Among the first ten amendments to the constitution included the adoption of the bill of rights in the year 1791. The principle of separation of powers in the constitution guards against possible misuse of power basing it on Montesquieu’s theory that power must be used to balance power. The balancing of power is overseen through devising a system of two sovereigns to which include the states and the central government.

The rights of criminally accused

Just like every other individual is entitled to the rights and freedoms in the constitution, the same applies to the criminally accused individuals. The fourth, fifth, sixth as well as the eighth amendments are the essence of the due process of the law stipulating the rights of every citizen against arbitrary actions by the national as well as the states governments. The core purpose of the due process is the leveling of the playing field between the accused person and the all-powerful state and thereby defining the limits of the government’s action against the personal liberty of every citizen. According to the American traditions, it is far worse to convict an innocent person than setting a guilty person free, to which the judicial systems hold the values.

The fourth amendment of the constitution protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, to which controversies have been raised against the issue regarding the drug-related searches, the DNA evidence as well as the government surveillance. The Fifth Amendment requires the grand of the jury for the majority of for the majority of the crimes, protecting against double jeopardy and provides for the section stipulating that one cannot testify by force against oneself. The other fundamental clause of the fifth regards the takings clause to which extends to each citizen protection against the taking of private property without just compensation. The purpose of the clause is to assert limits on the powers of the eminent domain through procedures that require the showing of a public purpose and the provision of the payments that are fair in the event of seizure of a person’s property. The sixth amendment requires a speedy trial to the accused as well as the right to witnesses and counsel. The eighth amendment prohibits on the cruel and the unusual punishment, with the possession of a significant challenge in the interpretation in that what is considered cruel and unusual varies from culture to culture as well as from generation to another.

The media, government and public opinion

There are important forces that contribute to the shaping of the opinions in the marketplace of ideas, and they include the government, the news media as well as the private groups. The effect on the public opinion can be limited despite the efforts of all the governments to try to influence, manipulate or even manage the citizens’ beliefs. Majority of the ideas that happen to become more prominent in the political life are mostly developed and even spread by the economic and the political groups to which search for issues responsible for the advancing their cause. The media is regarded as the opinion maker through their potential impact of interpretation of the events. The relationship between the public opinion and the government policy his dynamic as the policy responds to the opinion and the opinions tend to shift based on the new government policies. More affluent and educated citizens may have a disproportionate influence over politics and the public policies decision due to their tendency to vote at higher rates and therefore are more likely to contribute money to the political campaigns.

In measuring the public opinion, the politicians and the public officials make extensive use of the public opinion polls which aids them in making decisions. For a political survey to be an accurate representation of the people, appropriate sampling method, sufficient sample size and the avoidance of the selection bias should be emphasized. Big data and the social media offer new ways of measuring public opinions on a mass scale. The pollsters are capable of inferring the opinions based on the online trend, and both parties maintain massive databases that track the activities from voting behavior to consumer preferences.

The concept of unfinished business

Unfinished Business




The concept of unfinished business is also known as the Zeigarnik effect. Unfinished business is described as the unexpressed feelings that are mostly associated with distinct memories and fantasies (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008). These feelings include anger, resentment, hatred, rage, anxiety, pain, grief, abandonment and guilt. The feelings are not entirely expressed in the awareness, linger in the background, and they are carried to the present life. They cause compulsive behaviors, preoccupations, wariness and other self-defeating behaviors (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008). Unfinished business persists until the affected person deals with these alienated and denied feelings.

Unfinished business is an important concept in the gestalt therapy. Bluma Zeigarnik was a great gestalt psychologist who observed that incomplete tasks are easy to remember than complete tasks (Greenberg & Malcolm, 2002). This observation is caused by the fact that human needs to invest more energy in holding details of incomplete tasks in the short-term memory. In contrast, complete tasks require less energy as they are stored in the long-term memory, thus, can be easily forgotten. Imagine someone spinning plates on sticks; each of them is an incomplete task that requires a lot of energy to keep the plates spinning (Greenberg & Malcolm, 2002). Psychologist Buffington explained the Zeigarnik effect by stating that people tend to recall negative experiences and feelings better than positive ones ( Baumeister & Bushman, 2008).

Psychological research about incomplete business dates back from the late 1920s. Zeigarnik did a study where he gave 138 children easy tasks to do like puzzles and arithmetic. She interrupted one-half in the mid-task and allowed the other half to complete the tasks. An hour later, only one out of ten (12%) recalled the completed tasks while 8% remembered the same number of each. However, 80% recalled the interrupted tasks. Repeated experiments continue to confirm that people remember uncompleted tasks far better than the completed ones (Greenberg & Malcolm, 2002). The founders of gestalt therapy applied this concept in clinical practice. Suppose someone grows up with parents who are hostile and uncaring; the need for the warmth of parental love will be an important unfinished situation for that person (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008). An important aspect of focusing on the here and now is that it helps us actively seek to complete our unfinished business.

One of the pitfalls of unfinished business in counseling is that the client may not pay enough attention to the counselor’s advice because of the constant disturbance by the unexpressed feelings. These unexpressed feelings keep on lingering at the back of the mind of the client, and unless they are addressed, the client may not benefit from the therapy (Greenberg & Malcolm, 2002). The therapist must also possess a high level of personal development if the therapy is to be effective. He must be in a position to recognize the uncompleted tasks in each client so that he can apply the right intervention to help the client complete those tasks. In this case, the rapist should engage in regular in-service training so as to keep themselves abreast with the current changes in their field of experience (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008).

This therapy also tends to concentrate much on here and now or else with the present (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008). Lack of emphasis on the past experiences presents a major pitfall of this therapy during the counseling process. Another disadvantage of this treatment is that it lacks a strong theoretical base to support its application. There is no enough literature in this field to support evidence-based health care provision. The therapists can also harm the client when they displace their unfinished business to them. The harm to the client is especially high in therapist who lacks self-awareness (Greenberg & Malcolm, 2002).

Most people have unfinished business in their life, and the difference is brought by the coping mechanisms an individual employs (Greenberg & Malcolm, 2002). Incomplete tasks therapist face challenges when some of these suppressed feelings are brought into awareness by the behaviors of the clients. A client who expresses anger and hatred may remind the therapist of the suppressed feeling of hatred towards some people in the past who wronged them (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008). Many of the therapist’s repressed feelings of rage, abandonment, hatred or betrayal may be brought into awareness. The therapist can become a victim of these feelings. When this happens, his ability to help the client is hampered.

We were abandoned by our dad

when I was young. I grew up in a single-parent family, and this has created a significant challenge in my life. The hatred for my father is one of my major unfinished businesses. With time I have always tried to suppress this feeling of abandonment, but to no avail. It keeps on lingering in my mind. The more I attempt to suppress it the more it expresses itself. I have tried to consult many of my colleagues over the same, but the result is just the same. This feeling has affected my work with the client in a major way. I displace this feeling to most of my male clients which destroy a good therapeutic relationship. The quality of the healthcare am supposed to offer to my client is affected adversely.

Individuals c

an control their surrounding when they are self-aware (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008). Counselor’s self-awareness is also a primary ethical consideration because it prevents him from inflicting harm to his clients. This moral consideration can prevent counselors from displacing their unfinished business to their clients that destroy a therapeutic environment. It also helps the therapist to understand their personal history. Thus, the past has less control over them, and they don’t look for other people to satisfy its deficits (Greenberg & Malcolm, 2002). Understanding yourself is the best way to begin learning about the development of others. Self-awareness assists counselors to offer high-quality services to their clients.


Baumeister, R.F., & Bushman, B.J., (2008). Social Psychology and Human Nature. Thompson Wadsworth: United States.

Greenberg, L. S., & Malcolm, W. (2002). Resolving unfinished business: Relating process to outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 406.

The Constitutionality Of The Bank Of The United States, 1791 By Thomas Jefferson

The Constitutionality Of The Bank Of The United States, 1791 By Thomas Jefferson

The two documents such as the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, 1791 by Thomas Jefferson to Washington and document 5; Alexander Hamilton, Opinion on the constitutionality of the Bank was written in same times but with different authors. Thomas Jefferson happened to be the author of the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States which was written in 1791, and Alexander Hamilton as well was the author of opinions on the constitutionality of the Bank written in the same year. All the two documents were letters written to answer the request of Washington.

However, in the two documents, Hamilton is said to have drawn his answer to Washington’s request much more deliberately than Thomas Jefferson. Hamilton was able to give the best answer because he had papers written from Virginians Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Edmund Randolph against the creation of the Bank of the United States hence allowing him to have arguments on what he was to answer. According to Thomas Jefferson, he quotes that; “If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their Fathers conquered…I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies… The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs,” (Hamilton, Alexander & Jefferson, pg. 103).Research shows that Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton have been the most studied and beloved figures in the American history. And today, standard bearers of conservatism, radicalism as well as liberalism are utilizing their complex views to legitimize their arguments. The study also shows that various laws, values and customs have shaped the development of banking institutions in the United States in a distinctive way; however, it is evident that none has done so more than the vicious debate between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson over the development of the bank in 1791. Conversely, as the United States look toward banking reforms as a result of the economic collapse which took place in 2008, it may be critical to understand how the two document debate have become institutionalized into the America political fabric. For instance the Federalist and the anti-Federalist debate concerning the creation of the central bank as well as, the regulation of financial institutions created a yes or a no framework which up-to-date still dominates the American national political debate (Hamilton, Alexander & Jefferson, pg. 103).The two documents were written for different reasons. It is true that, each author wanted to accomplish something important by writing them down in a document format. The 1791 debate over central banking in the two documents were controversial. This is because, the central banking debate was largely rooted in anti-federalist as well as, federalist tensions, the second reason why the debate was controversial was that, the battle over the bank became an overly simplistic debate that was founded on its constitutionality which left no room for negotiation.Hamiltons’ opinion on the bank laid classical arguments of the people who favored an effective central government as well as a national power. However, according to Jefferson, he argued “the foundation of the constitution stated that all powers not delegated to the United States, by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people…” The main reason as to why Jefferson wrote a letter to Washington was that, Jefferson was Washington’s Secretary of State as part of Washington’s cabinet where he wanted to persuade George Washington by opposing the establishment of national banks in the U.S (Hamilton, Alexander & Jefferson, pg. 103).In the letter written by Thomas Jefferson, he condemned the system of banking as being “a blot” on the constitution, as corrupt, and that long-term government debt was “swindling” future generations. He quotes “I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around will deprive the people of all property until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered. The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs.” From this quote, I believed that Jefferson indeed had no love for private banks, and that was actually what he wanted to accomplish by writing it down in a document. He goes on and says; “It is not easy to estimate the obstacles which, in the beginning, we should encounter in ousting the banks from their possession of the circulation; but a steady and judicious alternation of emissions and loans, would reduce them in time” (Hamilton, Alexander & Jefferson, pg. 103).The two documents actually revealed what was happening in America society in regards to the central banking debate. There were various events that took place to which the two documents referred to directly, first, the social contract did not give the Parliament a complete political authority over its colonists and thus all the powers of government, legislative, executive, and judiciary, were all resulting into a legislative body. Conversely, in economic matters, Jefferson believed that agriculture should be the backbone of the nation, however, Hamilton on the other hand, wanted a balanced economy of agriculture finance, manufacturing and trade making the two differ in their opinions.

ConclusionTo move the debate towards a more and good constructive framework as well as, to better manage these creative tensions; I therefore, propose that the bankers, the public, along with the politicians should do the following; First, they should develop a deliberate effort of identifying and understanding the complexities which may exist in guiding the fiscal policy. Second, the public along with their elected officials should ensure that they take ownership of the issue as well as, understand that central banks are limited in their capacity so as to prevent on the economic calamities. Lastly, the government should achieve an unprecedented level of transparency in the process in order to gain the trust and understanding of the American people. Conversely, reframing the debate in approach that is transparent will give politicians understand and feel comfortable with the Federal and thus utilize the Federal in the best way possible.

Works Cited

Daniels, Jonathan. Ordeal of ambition; Jefferson, Hamilton, Burr.. [1st ed. New York: Doubleday, 2009. Print.

Hamilton, Alexander, Thomas Jefferson, and Frederick Clarke Prescott. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson; representative selections,. New York: American Book Co., 2008. Print.

McDonald, Forrest. “The Rhetoric of Alexander Hamilton.” The Imaginative Conservative. N.p., 2006 Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <>.

The Concept of Worship, Prayer, & Rituals In The Islamic Religion


The Rituals of the Islamic Religion

Student’s name



Due Date

The Concept of Worship, Prayer, & Rituals In The Islamic Religion

The religion Muslim is important to understand through a business perspective. A brief summary of the history of Islam will be discussed as well as explaining the important elements for Muslims, which included but is not limited to the Qur’an, The Five Pillars and Ramadan. The different types of branches of Islam include Sunni, Shiite, and Sufi in which all have significant differences and similarities. The importance on the study of Muslim is important due to the world revolving around religion, however news media proves to escalate the problems when in fact Muslims are traditional humans who take their religion serious in both heart and in their beliefs, such as believing in Allah (God) and Muhammad.

When examining the concept of worship and prayer in the Islam, it is noticed that the religion takes the concept of worshipping and praising a higher power very passionately, and this is a very important aspect of an individual’s faith. It has always been the central practice of bringing all faiths together and serving as a common ground for all believers since the beginning of time. No matter what sect of a religion you believe in and practise, worship is something that stays evident and consistent throughout all sects of a religion. The Islamic faith emphasizes both public and private forms of worship. For believers, they each serve a different function, and each has a different meaning and purpose behind it. Private worshipping across these different faiths share many similarities that will be discussed later on, as well as examining public worshipping across these different faiths, while looking at the many similarities as well as differences that they all share together.

Ibada an umbrella term for religious devotion (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p. 191). Muslim worship is referred to as “ibada,” or service to God, and involves praising and confessing sins to one’s lord. Salat is the Muslim term for prayer, and it is one of Islam’s pillars. Islam requires that certain actions be taken before a Muslim can pray their daily salat. Before a person prays, they must maintain and demonstrate their purity. Purity is extremely important in Islam with a famous hadith quoting “Purity is half the faith” (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p. 191). Islamic prayer requires that a person attain this “purity” that the religion so reveres. Muslims must perform an action prior to their salat called “wudu”. Water is required when performing wudu, and if water isn’t accessible one must perform an action called “tayammum”. Tayammum substitutes water with elements of the earth such as sand or clay to purify oneself. Showing the multiple ways Muslims can purify themselves before prayer represents how important purity is when it comes to worship in Islam. Now that we have discussed what has to be done before worship, it is time to discuss how Muslims worship privately and publicly.

The history of the Muslim religion started with a vision that Muhammad had when he was in a cave by Allah. Allah is the God to the Muslim Religion. As Muhammad was born in the town Mecca many events lead to the forming of the religion. Mecca had fame due to having black meteorites representing to the people as falling rocks from Heaven. The people in Mecca built a shrine over the black Meteorites known as Kabah. The Kabah is a very sacred area to the Muslim religion as it is Private to the world. In accordance to Molloy, “Islamic religion basically translates to “submission” and “giving in fully” implying total submission to God’s will”, (Ch.10). The Islamic religion is a serious deal especially when talking about Muhammad and Allah. The Qur’an is represented as a bible to the Muslim Religion. The stepping­stones of the religion and history as well as Religion laws are set in the Qur’an. Although Islam prohibits images artist have to record everything in sacred words to be able to describe the writings.

Each and every day, Muslims are obligated to fulfill five prayers in praise of Allah (SWT)., when it comes to private prayer in Islam. These five prayers, which focus on one’s relationship with God, can be done in private throughout the day. These five daily prayers, on the other hand, can be said in public. When it is time to pray, “a chanted call to prayer in Arabic called adhan” (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p. 192) is performed to alert everyone that it is time to stop and pray. Private worship in Islam is typically performed at home and can include acts of worship such as reading the Quran, praying, and reciting other holy scriptures (Bellah & Rappaport, 1999). Fasting is another form of worship in Islam, and Muslims must fast for one month during the Islamic month of Ramadan. Fasting is another form of private worship that is valued in Islam.

Now that we’ve covered the private aspect of worship, let’s turn our attention to the public aspect of prayer in Islam. As long as the person is praying to the Ka’aba shrine in Mecca, public and private worship can take place anywhere. Private prayers are typically performed alone, whereas public prayers are typically performed in groups. When a group prays publicly together, “this requires a leader in the congregation who stands at the front and sets the tone with his or her voice and body language” (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p. 193). Furthermore, for the salat to be acceptable in public group prayers, the prayer leader must be a male. Finally, in order for the prayer to be accepted in both private and public worship in Islam, the individual(s) must perform a “niyya, meaning intention” right before the prayer begins (Worship & Ritual chapter 12, p.193). The “mosque” is Islam’s holiest place of worship, and it is where the majority of public worship takes place. Friday prayers are an important part of public worship in Islam, and it is recommended that all Muslims go to the mosque to worship God as a group on Friday. As part of public worship in Islam, sermons and lectures are also held inside the mosque.

The Qur’an is a written symbol that represents Islam’s people’s religion. Praying, fasting, and living according to the Qur’an on a daily basis are among the rituals that take place. According to Molloy, “the Qur’an has 114 chapters, or Suras” (Ch.10). Each Sura or chapter of the Qur’an is given a name, such as the elephant, thunder, Light, and moon. The Suras are arranged in length order, shortest to longest. The final chapters of the Qur’an are brief. Because the order in the Qur’an is reversed, the chapters, like those of other religions, are not always in chronological order. Abu Bakr caliphate, according to Hooker, is where the Qur’an was written down after Muhammad’s death. Bakr was important to Muhammad.

Bakr was recognized as the first Caliph. After Muhammad’s death, the Caliph is in charge. Although the Qur’an is a guide for all Muslims and the people of Islam, the Five Pillars are also important in guiding the religion.

The five Pillars are, according to Molloy, ” Pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj), Fasting During Ramadan (Sawm), Charity to the Poor (Zakat), Prayer (Salat), and Creed (Shahadah).” (Ch.10). An Islamic creed, or shahadah, is depicted as a whisper into a newborn’s ears. Muslims believe there is only one god, Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. The message is brief, but it contains foundational words. Salat is another piller in which devout Muslims pray five times a day, at dawn, noon, midafternoon, sunset, and night. Zakat is a religious donation in the form of a fixed monetary amount. The estimated percentage is 2.5 percent of total money generated. Sawm represents religious fasting in order to establish religious discipline and respect. The Hajj is a symbol of people attempting to find Mecca at least once in their lives. Another important Islamic topic is Ramadan. Ramadan is a month of fasting during which no food, drink, or sexual activity is permitted. This long tradition, which lasts 29­30 days, is known all over the world. An opportunity for spiritual reflection and growth, as well as service to others and time spent with loved ones, are all part of a Muslim holiday season. As Muslims, we strive to grow spiritually and become closer to Allah and those we love. Between sunrise and sunset, they abstain from daily luxuries like smoking, drinking, and having sex with others. Additionally, In Ramadan, Muslims devote themselves to spiritual reflection and unity by reciting the Quran, praying, fasting, doing charitable acts, and spending time with loved ones while avoiding lying, gossiping and fighting.

Islamic prayer is either an act of supplication or an act of worship. Because supplication is among the most essential aspects. Almighty Allah’s glory is its primary objective. Maintaining contact with one’s religious beliefs is the most critical duty of a Muslim. Every Muslim adult, male or female, is required to pray on a personal level. In order to cultivate the habit of prayer in a child, it is expected that he begin at the age of seven. The punishment will be severe if he refuses to do it by the age of 10. Additional to this, they pray to receive a message from God or Allah in addition to the other requirements

Muslim culture or spirituality places a high value on fasting and prayer ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1007/s13668-018-0233-2″,”ISSN”:”21613311″,”abstract”:”Purpose of review: Since the early development of human societies, religious beliefs, and practices has been integral to their identity, culture, and social structure, traditions are influenced by the area, era, and culture wherein they developed. Some religions offer advice on behavioral and diet modifications as strategies to fortify the body, purify the spirit, and elevate consciousness. This review is an attempt to compare different practices, describe the health benefits and risks of fasting, and reconcile these age-old recommendations with practical modern life. Recent findings: Research to clarify and quantify the impact of these dietary modifications is challenging due to the variability in recommendations among various religions and in day-to-day practices. Summary: Most religions share common goals of well-being, body-mind integration, and spiritual attainment. Historically, the transformational power of fasting periods has been appreciated, but there is still much to discover about the underlying beneficial physiologic mechanisms of fasting in preventing and treating metabolic diseases.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Venegas-Borsellino”,”given”:”Carla”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sonikpreet”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Martindale”,”given”:”Robert G.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Current Nutrition Reports”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2018″,”9″,”1″]]},”page”:”131-138″,”publisher”:”Current Science Inc.”,”title”:”From Religion to Secularism: the Benefits of Fasting”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”7″},”uris”:[“″]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Venegas-Borsellino et al., 2018)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Venegas-Borsellino et al., 2018)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Venegas-Borsellino et al., 2018)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Venegas-Borsellino et al., 2018). Fasting is yet another distinguishing feature of Islam in terms of morality and spirituality. Basically, fasting means abstaining from all food, drink, sex, and tobacco use for an entire day. Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, mandates that all of this must be completed between the hours of sunrise and sunset. It is the goal of this pillar to help Muslims better understand what it means to have a positive attitude toward humanity ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.1080/1369118X.2017.1340970″,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Johnson”,”given”:”Mark R.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Information, Communication & Society”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”12″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2017″,”12″,”2″]]},”page”:”1844-1847″,”publisher”:”Informa UK Limited”,”title”:”Gods in and of the machine: morality, divination and meaning in digital religion and games”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”20″},”uris”:[“″]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2017)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2017)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Johnson, 2017)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Johnson, 2017). Salah, the final of Islam’s five pillars of prayer, requires that all Muslims walk in prayer in a regular and orderly fashion every day. Observed and performed at predetermined times five times a day, it is a physical, mental and spiritual expression of worship. During this time, they are required to pray facing Mecca. Muslims must first stand, bow, abject themselves, and then sit on the ground, effectively ending the prayer (2013, April 19). Islamic prayer involves reciting or reading special verses and prayers at various points in the year. For the most part, salah, or prayer, serves as a means of communication with God and a way to keep God in mind. Muslim lives are influenced greatly by this Pillar because it defines their relationship and allegiance to Allah, making it a high priority for Muslims.

It’s an excellent time to focus on one’s religious beliefs and grow closer to Allah, while also developing patience and compassion ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5144/0256-4947.2002.186″,”ISSN”:”02564947″,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Azizi”,”given”:”Fereidoun”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Annals of Saudi Medicine”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3-4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2002″]]},”page”:”186-191″,”publisher”:”King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre”,”title”:”Research in Islamic fasting and health”,”type”:”article”,”volume”:”22″},”uris”:[“″]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Azizi, 2002)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Azizi, 2002)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Azizi, 2002). It’s about taking care of both your mind and body. First and foremost, the qualities adopted during fasting are the qualities we should exhibit as Muslims. The month serves as a constant reminder of how we should behave in general, not just during this month. The month reminds us to strive for purity and discipline ourselves to perform these acts in order to secure it in our daily lives, becoming accustomed to purifying our beliefs as well as our bodies, minds, and souls ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“ISSN”:”2345-2587″,”abstract”:”Introduction: Nearly one billion adult Muslims across the world refrain from eating, drinking, and smoking from dawn until dusk during the holy month of Ramadan. The duration of Islamic fasting varies depending on the coinciding season and geographical location. The present study aimed to review the health benefits of Islamic fasting. Methods: This review was carried out after searching in several databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Medline, PMC, Google Scholar and also the related articles. Results: Islamic fasting is along with many health benefits such as the reduced risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and cancer. Although, some health problems have mentioned during Islamic fasting like dehydration, headaches. Conclusion: According to the results of this review, religious fasting positively influences the body weight and lipid and glucose levels, while exerting antioxidative effects, increasing longevity, and improving the renal and immune function. The health benefits of fasting could be reinforced through the balanced intake of various nutrients, such as dairy products, fruits and vegetables, meat and fish, cereals, and grains, as well as beverages such as water and milk, during Ramadan.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Massoud”,”given”:”Ramona”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Sharifan”,”given”:”Anoosheh”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Massoud”,”given”:”Armita”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Journal of Nutrition,Fasting and Health”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”1″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2020″]]},”page”:”17-22″,”title”:”Religious Fasting; the Purgation of Soul and Body”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”8″},”uris”:[“”]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Massoud et al., 2020)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Massoud et al., 2020)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Massoud et al., 2020)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Massoud et al., 2020). Increasing our closeness to Allah SWT and instilling fear of our Lord – it is critical to remember who our Creator is, why we were placed here, and what our goals are in this material world; to remember that this world is merely a stop-gap (albeit a very brief one) on our journey to the Hereafter. We should strive for taqwa and to be as close to Allah as possible.

Connecting with our Lord is critical for remembering why we’re here in the first place; otherwise, we’ll get lost in this realm, which is exactly what we’re here to avoid. In our materialistic world, we frequently fail to recognize how dependent we are on Allah SWT. As a result, the practice of remaining humble at all times; a simple act such as fasting simply demonstrates how dependent we are on our Lord and His creation ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”The main purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical justification about how important the fasting is for the humankind. In fact, it is a theoretical paper which motivates regarding the issues of benefits that we can achieve from fasting. The results of the paper disclose some significant reasons that fasting can be considered as a well being program to acquire patience, strong will, righteousness, sincerity, good manners, discipline, better sense of prestige, better dieting habits, and many other physical and spiritual benefits of human being in order to establish peace, prosperity and sustainable development of the society. However, the limitation of the paper was it could not consider any numerical examples in favour of the main message of the study because of lack of data availability. Nevertheless, the paper shows its originality in substance and makes a unique contribution to the literature on one of the most important pillars of Islam”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Hossain”,”given”:”Mohammad Zakir”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”3″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2012″]]},”page”:”184-190″,”title”:”Fasting in Islam : Its Excellence, Benefits and Use for Sustainable Development of the Society”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”3″},”uris”:[“″]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Hossain, 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Hossain, 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Hossain, 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Hossain, 2012). Ramadan reminds us to be humble and selfless while also having empathy and compassion for others.

Ramadan, like many other Islamic attributes, serves to remind us that we are all equal in this world, regardless of skin color, race, religion, gender, or social status. We’ll all end up in the same place, wearing the same clothes, carrying only our amaal and leaving behind all worldly possessions. That is when we will truly understand how those we helped in this world contribute to what we bring into the next.

Despite the fact that Islamic ideals are generally peaceful, many Muslims are vehemently opposed to another religion coexisting with Islam and feel compelled to kill the infidel. This suggests that this group is going through a difficult time. Because of this conflict, it may be easier for this group to connect with Muslims by bridging the gap and participating in some of their religious and cultural traditions ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.2307/1387619″,”ISSN”:”00218294″,”abstract”:”This book argues that religion can and must be reconciled with science. Combining adaptive and cognitive approaches, it is a comprehensive analysis of religion’s evolutionary significance, and its inextricable interdependence with language. It is also a detailed study of religion’s main component, ritual, which constructs the conceptions that we take to be religious and therefore central in the making of humanity’s adaptation. The text amounts to a manual for effective ritual, illustrated by examples drawn from a range of disciplines.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Bellah”,”given”:”Robert N.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Rappaport”,”given”:”Roy A.”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“1999″]]},”page”:”569″,”title”:”Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”38″},”uris”:[“”]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(Bellah & Rappaport, 1999)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Bellah & Rappaport, 1999)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Bellah & Rappaport, 1999)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(Bellah & Rappaport, 1999). Almsgiving is a central tenet of Islam, and I believe that connecting with it would be beneficial for these people ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.4172/2161-0711.1000178″,”abstract”:”A review of research articles on Ramadan fasting indicates that fasting can serve as an excellent research model for Psycho-social behaviour and health studies. The purpose of fasting for Muslims is to learn self-restraint from indulgence in everyday pleasures, for self-discipline, to develop God-consciousness, to develop self-control, to purify the body, and to empathize with the poor and hungry. Muslims describe a feeling of inner peace and tranquillity. This involves restraining anger, doing good deeds, exercising personal discipline, and preparing one to serve as a good Muslim and a good person. One of the greatest advantages of fasting is that its true observance inculcates in a person a habit of speaking the truth. Fasting is a powerful therapeutic process that can help people recover from mild to severe health conditions.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”S”,”given”:”Ahmad”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”K”,”given”:”Goel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”KA”,”given”:”Maroof”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””},{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”P”,”given”:”Goel”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”09″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2012″]]},”title”:”Psycho-Social Behaviour and Health Benefits of Islamic Fasting During the Month of Ramadan”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”02″},”uris”:[“”]}],”mendeley”:{“formattedCitation”:”(S et al., 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(S et al., 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(S et al., 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:””}(S et al., 2012). For this reason, I believe Christians and Muslims can find a common ground on giving to the poor in the Bible, which will make it easier to develop connections and spread the message.

A Shiite is someone who believes in Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law. The Shiite sect was founded by a political movement that supported Ali. A Sunni is a follower of Muhammad’s way of life. Sunnis account for 80 percent of Muslims. Shitte are distinguished by their pure white or pure black headdress. Sunnis shave their mustaches and wear a smaller headband. Sufis and scholars regard a Sufi as Islam’s inner, mystical, or psycho­spiritual dimension. Sufis interpreted various Qur’anic concepts as mystical interpretations. Every type of follower has their own set of beliefs. Despite the fact that all of the movements spawned political movements, being able to identify each individual is critical because they do not get along.


In the Islamic religion, the passage of time is significant. Muslims are born with a strong sense of discipline, despite the fact that traditions are common among Muslims. The Qur’an and the Five Pillars are inextricably linked. The Qur’an is Islam’s fundamental prayer, law, and way of life. Ramadan is significant in business because it is necessary to respect a worker’s or business investor’s religion. It is essential to pray five times a day and to respect others. Sports, like many other aspects of life, teach restraint and discipline. Self-discipline practice allows you to separate from certain desires as well as constrain and detach yourself from your needs, allowing you to achieve true independence. Without the unnecessary burdens and indulgent wants and needs of daily life, such as status, material, money, stress, and possessions, one can achieve true contentment, freedom, and, most importantly, simplicity. Fasting helps to sharpen and direct the mind’s focus, allowing us to remember the reason for our existence and restore balance in our lives.


ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Azizi, F. (2002). Research in Islamic fasting and health. In Annals of Saudi Medicine (Vol. 22, Issues 3–4, pp. 186–191). King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

Bellah, R. N., & Rappaport, R. A. (1999). Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38(4), 569.

Hossain, M. Z. (2012). Fasting in Islam : Its Excellence, Benefits and Use for Sustainable Development of the Society. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 3(3), 184–190.

Johnson, M. R. (2017). Gods in and of the machine: morality, divination and meaning in digital religion and games. Information, Communication & Society, 20(12), 1844–1847.

Massoud, R., Sharifan, A., & Massoud, A. (2020). Religious Fasting; the Purgation of Soul and Body. Journal of Nutrition,Fasting and Health, 8(1), 17–22.

S, A., K, G., KA, M., & P, G. (2012). Psycho-Social Behaviour and Health Benefits of Islamic Fasting During the Month of Ramadan. Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education, 02(09).

Venegas-Borsellino, C., Sonikpreet, & Martindale, R. G. (2018). From Religion to Secularism: the Benefits of Fasting. In Current Nutrition Reports (Vol. 7, Issue 3, pp. 131–138). Current Science Inc.

The contemporary American political philosophies

The contemporary American political philosophies

The United States of America is a highly diversified country – with people from very different backgrounds. The country has seen several political parties since independence but at the moment there are two political parties – Democratic Party and Republican Party – that define American political ideology. The Democratic Party was formed by Thomas Jefferson back in 1792. It is committed to fighting for the poor, weak, marginalized and downtrodden by advocating for a government framework that gives them the full opportunity to enjoy the American dream. The Republican Party came into existence in the early 1850s and produced Abraham Lincoln as the first president from the party. Their ideology promotes minimal government involvement in people’s welfare, leaving the economy to run freely. The country is roughly divided equally behind these two opposing political camps, at least according to results of major elections held recently. During elections, the electorate is usually split almost evenly between liberal democratic principles and republican ideology that is more conservative. This divide is seen in all major issues affecting the country and the people, and each side presents strong arguments to support their stand.

Party Principles

Democrats generally ascribe to a liberal philosophy where government has a major role of overseeing and regulating the economy. In addition to this, democratic principles also advocate for the redistribution of economic wealth to benefit the needy people. Democrats believe it is the duty of the government to ensure all people are well taken care of, through programs like food stamps, social welfare, healthcare and education for those in need. The government should provide a social safety net for every individual as well as opportunities for all regardless of power or wealth.

Republican philosophy is more conservative and members believe it is not the government’s responsibility to take care of individuals. The party believes in personal responsibility, where individuals determine how they want to live, and being left to succeed or fail based on their own efforts without government input. Republicans believe that things like education, employment and healthcare are personal choices that the government should not determine for an individual. Furthermore, they believe that each individual’s freedom, dignity and ability should be respected. Theirs is a market-oriented approach with minimal government interference.

Voting patterns

From election results in the last six presidential elections, democratic presidential candidates have garnered majority votes in five instances. This is taken to reflect a trend in which the country is becoming more receptive to democratic ideology. This is seen from the strong support the democrats draw on issues like healthcare, taxes, economic growth and government regulation. This is because the Democratic Party proposes to a government that helps the people to ensure that the weak in society also get a decent life. Republicans want to leave people on their own to take care of themselves, even for the disadvantaged who are unable to do so. In a republican set up, the rich are likely to flourish while the poor continue to suffer.

Economy and employment

It has been established that the American economy performs better under Democrat presidents than republican presidents. Ideologically, democrats support balancing budgets, increasing taxes on the higher income bracket, and fair trade. On the opposite side, republicans believe in lowering the tax burden, limiting government spending on social welfare programs, and letting handle their own economic well-being. Over the decades, republicans have come to be seen as a party of trade restrictions, fiscal irresponsibility, failing micro-economics and big government. As for democrats, they are relatively viewed as fiscally responsible, having good microeconomic policies, and allowing free trade and competitive markets.

An analysis of federal budget statistics indicates a tendency for government deficit to rise during republican presidencies. For example, both Reagan and Bush introduced tax cuts in 1981 and 2001 respectively, with the result being a poor long-term budget outlook. In between the two republicans, Clinton’s administration recorded declining deficits and eventually high surpluses. In as much as many factors affect the overall budget, Clinton took two important steps that boosted economic growth. First, he established new trends for spending and tax revenues. Secondly, his “Save social security first” strategy helped to successfully block republicans desire to cut taxes, and even the democrats desire to increase spending. Thus, he was able to preserve the new surpluses the government had gained.

Republicans are supposed to put more effort into fighting inflation but in practice, their presidents have tended to put pressure on the Fed to relax on monetary policy. They are also expected to support small government but it has been shown that federal employment rises during republican governments. When it comes to free trade, republican actions are contrary to what their proclamations of support. They are known for protectionist actions like tariffs and export restraints. Many of the country’s economic decisions are hindered by current national security issues. There is increased spending on national security and this seems to be hurting other areas of the economy. Much of this increase is usually seen during republican presidencies, especially in recent years under George W. Bush.

Data from the U.S. Census on annual changes in income, unemployment and poverty over the last 50 years indicate that minority groups flourish under democratic governments but lose ground when republicans take over. Economic improvements happen to the whole nation as a whole under democrats, not just minority groups, as white Americans also fair better under democrats. This is one of the reasons why President Obama overwhelmingly won the black and Latino vote. The differences in economic performance under the two parties can be attributed to inherent ideological differences. Minority groups tend to fall under poor or lower-income bracket, and Democrat ideology calls for the protection and boosting of these groups economically. Democrat policies usually favor these groups, for example Clinton’s expansion of the earned income tax credits gave low-income earners tax refunds. Democrats usually introduce a range of policies that are intended to boost minority communities on issues like education and immigration reforms.

Democrat presidents tend to emphasize overall economic and job growth that ends up benefitting everyone, including minorities. Republicans, on the other hand, put more emphasis on reducing inflation, even if it means unemployment rising as a result. With the minority groups growing in numbers, and most U.S. children being born to minority parents, economic gains for minorities make the overall economy stronger for all Americans. Therefore, there is a tendency for voters, both whites and minorities, to support democratic ideologies on the economy and even other issues.


The Democratic Party aims to expand education opportunities and make them available for every child today. This is seen clearly in President Obama’s policy of “No Child Left Behind”. The party aims to achieve this policy through expanded government support, and a raft of other measures like cutting student loan rates, and introducing deductibles on college tuition tax. By paying for expanded education policies using higher taxation, the democrats are staying true to their principles on redistribution of wealth. Republicans approach to education is guided by the principle of personal responsibility with less government support. They believe that federal government should not get involved with state and local schools. From these two positions, it is clear that the democrat approach is more popular with many people. Minority groups and many white people are likely to support the Democratic Party based on their efforts to make education available and affordable to all.


Democrats propose that the federal government provides a healthcare system that includes everyone, so that everyone gets access to healthcare coverage. Democrats want to force citizens to purchase healthcare insurance through the government. The proposed Obamacare aims to achieve this mainly through increasing taxation on the higher income bracket. Republicans have been vehemently opposed to Obamacare and any universal healthcare program that is funded through government. Whereas they also propose a more affordable healthcare program, they plan to achieve this through lowering taxes for people who purchase health insurance, so that it is easier for them to purchase on their own. According to republican principles, it is wrong for those who are on welfare to get health insurance from the government, while many hard-working people cannot afford it. In such a situation, republicans are likely to get support from well-to-do Americans who can afford their won private health insurance. As for minority groups and many white Americans who struggle with health insurance payments, the democratic route presents a better option since they will have a ‘safety net’ even when they cannot afford healthcare.


America has long been seen as the land of opportunity and many immigrants make every effort to get there, whether legally or otherwise. The number of immigrants has been on the increase and their presence is being felt significantly. This has made immigration a very hot issue in the U.S. political arena. Democrats are sympathetic to immigrants in their policies and ideologies and this has seen them get a lot of political support from them. According to democrats, immigrants who are already in America should be afforded the same opportunities as U.S. citizens so that they work and contribute to the economy. Republicans are against illegal immigrants earning the same opportunities as U.S. citizens. They believe that immigrants are taking opportunities that should be available to citizens, and all illegal immigrants should be deported. With such a harsh republican stand on immigration, they are likely to get support from the Latino vote and any other migrant group in the U.S. Even immigrants who are already settled in the U.S. legally are sympathetic to illegal immigrants. As minority groups grow in number, they tend to boost democratic political base and make the country more popular overally in the country.

Foreign policy

Republicans favor a more American involvement in world affairs backed by a strong military presence. They believe that the best way to keep America safe is through pre-emptive military intervention against perceived threats and enemies. To this extent, they support increased military spending and excursions abroad. They also want a tough stance against countries like Iran and Syria. Republicans are usually seen as pro-war and believe America should use its military right to secure the rights of its citizens and the rest of the world. They see America playing an oversight role over the rest of the world and flexing its military muscle as much as possible.

On the opposite side, democrats are anti-war and prefer to cut military spending and reduce American military intervention abroad. Democrats have been at the forefront in trying to bring American troops back home from Iraq and Afghanistan. Whereas the republican approach was seen as the best way to fight the threat of terrorism, major failures have made many people rethink their support. For example, there were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq yet the public was misled to believe that was the reason for the invasion in the first place. Saddam may no longer be there, but Iraq is not anyway safer, with rampant sectarian violence that has claimed many U.S. troops stationed there.

The republican push for a stronger American input in world affairs may have been well intended initially but the outcomes have left many Americans disillusioned. The main concerns include the loss of American lives fighting abroad and the amount of government spending that goes into those wars. This is especially so if the public feels that military intervention may not be necessary in the first place. Furthermore, republican-driven wars, like the Iraq Invasion, have been followed by tough economic times back at home. Whether there is a clear connection between wars and subsequent economic turmoil or not, public perception is that wars are costing America a lot more than they should. For this reason, the democrat approach of less military spending and less American military presence across the world is looking more attractive. Furthermore, democrats have been steadfast and consistent with their approach to foreign policy while republicans have been floundering on their stand regarding the same.

Individual Liberty

Democrats firmly believe in the concept that all humanity deserves liberty, and human individuals sometimes have to be restrained for their own good and the good of others. However, there is that inherent belief that the government should have greater control on people’s day-to-day lives. This can only be achieved, of course, through higher taxes. Republicans want lots of individual freedom, especially when it comes to business and other economic activities. However, this only applies to Americans, especially the white folks in the Republican Party. They will not raise so much concern if people are being denied individual liberties abroad, or even if the same is happening at home to minority groups.

Religion is another hot issue that shows clear divide between republicans and democrats. Republicans, on the extreme, can be termed as religious zealots. They believe it is their duty to enforce God’s will and plan on the people. They tie their religious commitment to the preservation of traditional family values. For this reason, republicans are strongly opposed to abortion and are even against contraceptive use. They believe abstinence and following God’s word is enough to solve problems like teen pregnancies. Republicans are also strongly opposed to the issue of gay rights, which they consider ungodly and should not be permitted. Gay rights are a threat to traditional family values espoused by the republicans.

Democrat approach to religion is hinged on the fundamental belief in individual liberties. For this reason, they are relaxed on religion and accommodate a whole range of religious views, including atheists. By extension, they believe in an individual’s right to make a whole range of choices without strictly following the traditional teachings of the church. On the issue of abortion, democrats believe that it is the right of the woman to choose whether she wants to have a baby or not. To this end, democrats usually support family health programs both home and abroad. Democrats also advocate for gay rights as an important element of individual liberties. This support has gained the Democratic Party a lot of support from the LGBT group, which is becoming very vocal and very influential on the public political arena.

Democrats relaxed approach to such issues like religion, gays and abortion make it more appealing to young, urban populations that are grappling with these issues on a daily basis. The republican views on the same are seen by many as retrogressive and unfair on individuals. America is a diverse nation of different cultures and the republicans seem to be promoting only white American culture and seeking to impose it on the rest of the people. Democrats are seen to be more accommodating by allowing a wide range of personal choices on issues of religion, culture and personal preference. For this reason, democrats are appealing to the educated white Americans in urban areas and the rest of the non-white Americans. With the population of non-white Americans on the rise, their political input is becoming increasingly important and the Democratic Party is gaining a lot from having embraced these groups with accommodative ideologies.


American political landscape is roughly divided equally between two opposing camps – democrats and republicans. These two political parties have strikingly divergent political ideologies that influence their views on various important issues that affect American people and the nation at large. Democrats believe it is the duty of the government to ensure that each citizen enjoys a quality life. For this reason, the government must take an active role in providing services like healthcare, education and economic empowerment, especially to weak groups that are unable to afford these things on their own. Republicans favor less government involvement in such matters, instead advocating for individuals to be left free to determine their own lives.

The difference in ideology between the two parties is seen in the way they run government when in power. Democrats favor increasing taxes on the higher income bracket and a free trade economy. They want more government spending on social welfare programs, and less on the military. Republicans want to lower taxes on the rich and reduce government spending on social welfare. They prefer everyone to take care of themselves with no special protections for the weak and underprivileged. Republicans want a strong American involvement in world affairs, mainly achieved through flexing its military muscle. They are usually proponents of war while Democrats generally oppose wars. The democratic stand on a range of issues like religion, immigration, individual liberties and social welfare has made it very attractive to more Americans, especially the growing proportion of minority groups. This is why Democrats have been able to appeal to the modern voter more than the conservative republicans.


Appleby, J. The American Vision. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2005.

Campbell, Andrea, L. How Policies Make Citizens: Senior Political Activism and the American Welfare State. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Fried, Joseph. 2008. Democrats and Republicans–rhetoric and reality: comparing the voters in statistics and anecdotes. New York: Algora Pub.

Polsby, Nelson W., Aaron Wildavsky, and David A. Hopkins. 2008. Presidential elections: Strategies and structures of American politics. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Witcover, J. “Rise and Fall of the Great Society.” In Party of the People: A history of the Democrats. New York: Random House, 518. 2003.

Woodward, Bob, Maestro: Greenspan’s Fed and American Boom, New York, Simon and Schuster, 2000.

The Concept, Origin and Spread of the Order of Illuminati



Course Name

Due Date

The Concept, Origin and Spread of the Order of Illuminati

One of the most vexed issues in the present international world order is Illuminati. The concept of illuminism is fraught in much controversy, with people holding different views in respect of different aspects thereto. At the very heart of the controversies is the basis of the Order of the Illuminati; whether it is real conspiracy or a fictional belief; what it essentially entails; and the implication of membership thereto, if any. Deriving from this, several questions have arisen, with many uncertain answers by scholars, philosophers, and researchers alike. In light of the foregoing, the paper succinctly critiques the article, ‘a primer on the Illuminati’ by William McIlhany.

The subject of illuminati is no doubt a significant concern to a majority of people today. A cursory perusal over written articles, movies or fictional books on this subject portrays somewhat fierce conspiratorial order. Suffice to say, many attribute illuminati with inhumane acts coupled with manifestation of supernatural powers. Elsewhere, other commentators hold the view that Illuminati arose as an order with the germane aim of defying the existing religious, social and political orders and replacing them with their desires, and subsequently exercising control over the same (McIlhany, 31).

Summary and Evaluation

The article by William McIlhany on the subject of Illuminati attempts to offer response to the above conflicted questions. With much precision, William McIlhany in his informative article has placed much emphasis on unveiling the root of Illuminati, its central theme, its spread, reprisal thereto and the current situation. At the very onset of the paper, McIlhany remarks that since time immemorial, there have emerged many secret and conspiratorial movements. In the author’s perspective, these movements have often been driven by certain motives, with the key goals being inter alia gain absolute authority over the universe, dismantle existing governance arrangements and at last destroy religious orders (McIlhany, 31). This is akin to the position highlighted in the introductory section of the paper.

The central philosophy adopted by the author in respect to Illuminati is that it had originated as an association in the eighteenth century. As a consequence of destructive movements, McIlhany asserts that Illuminati arose in Bavaria, Germany, in pursuance of the instructions from Adam Weishaupt (McIlhany, 32). In this regard, the author holds that Weishaupt’s formation of the organizational structure of Illuminati was inspired by the desire to direct worldwide attack on religion and monarchy. Thus, on May 1, 1776 Weishaupt formally founded the order, in which it was referred to as ‘the Order of Illuminati’ (McIlhany, 32). Though the author gives the origin of the Order, the article does not however give a sound rationale behind the adoption of the name itself.

Following the formation of the Order of Illuminati, it is illustrated in the article it gained the membership of other persons, precisely clergymen and leaders of various institutions, inclusive of monarchs. With such membership, it became much easier to exercise authority and issue directives on how the Order of Illuminati was henceforth to be governed. Regarding its organization, McIlhany writes that its members were required to submit to the Order. In fact, McIlhany states that Weishaupt established spies wherein secret police would kill anyone who opted to reveal the secrets of the conspiracy (McIlhany, 34).

I am led to believe that the author has not fully brought out the issue regarding the membership of the Order of Illuminati satisfactorily. Precisely, it appears as though the membership was limited to clergymen and leaders. Even though it is reasonable to observe that such persons would have significantly contributed to the membership of the Order, other ordinary persons were as well included. Thus, the author should as well address their input in equal measure.

Critical to this critique, it is noted in the article that most loyal members of the Order enjoyed myriad sensual and material benefits. In the averments of the author, ‘the power of the Order must be turned to the advantages of its authors…money, services, honor, goods, and blood must be expected for the fully proved Brethren.’ Within the writings of the Order were included the system of operations. Some of the instructions included; fomenting hatred and bloodshed between the religious, racial and ethnic groups; entrenching hatred between children and parents; and instructions on the kind of buildings to be burned (p.34). Indeed the author remarks that with the above arrangement and benefits, the conspiratorial structure in Bavaria made great achievements. These pieces of information are indeed reliable, considering that the article provides specific dates when each material event took place.

The spread of the Order of Illuminati is traced to 1782 when its power and influence began to mushroom outside Bavaria (McIlhany, 34). Herein, it is indicated that Von Knigge was quite instrumental in persuading many German and French people to join the Order (McIlhany, 34). The upshot of this was that the whole of German freemansory become under the auspices of the Illuminati. Besides, as the French Revolution ensued, the Order of Illuminati had spread in France (McIlhany, 35). This trend spread to other parts of Europe and into the US. However, according to the author, the practice of the Order of Illuminati was met with much resistance. Its revival was nonetheless engineered by leaders such as Karl Bahrdt and Baron von Knigge (McIlhany, 36).


While the preceding paragraphs sets out the summary and evaluation of the article in respect to the Order of Illuminati, it is important to observe that there are areas that I agree with the author. One of the aspects that I subscribe to is in respect to the roots of the Order of Illuminati. As the author puts it across, Illuminati emerged as an organizational conspiratorial structure established by Weishaupt. This position has been reaffirmed by several other scholars, philosophers and commentators (Gardiner, 167).

Even though it may not be said with highest degree of precision the concise chronological development of Illuminati, it suffices to attribute it to the conspiratorial movements evident during the eighteenth century. The writings of Adam Weishaupt were critical in designing appropriate instructions to oversee the management of the Order of Illuminati (Gardiner, 167). Thus, while one may loosely assert that Weishaupt might not have been the first developer of the conspiratorial, he was, however, very instrumental in its formation, growth and spread.


The study sought to determine the root origins of the conspiratorial of Illuminati. This is against the backdrop that Illuminati is one of the most vexed orders to understand in the present day. Thus, as highlighted in the preceding paragraphs, many people do not really understand the development, nature and spread of Illuminati. Nonetheless, the critical review has pointed out that Illuminati is a conspiratorial concept that emerged in the eighteenth century. The underlying rationale behind its formulation was the desire to challenge the existing orders by replacing them and exercising authority over the world.

Works Cited

Gardiner, Philip. Secret Societies: Gardiner’s Forbidden Knowledge: Revelations about the Freemasons, Templars, Illuminati, Nazis, and the Serpent Cults. Red Wheel/Weiser, 2007.

McIlhany, William H. “A Primer on the Illuminati.” New American 25 (2009): 31-36.

The concepts of race, gender, and class are used to give identities to people within the society.






The concepts of race, gender, and class are used to give identities to people within the society. Identities in terms of race, gender and class are highly regarded by people in the society who consider them as significant factors that describe a person’s history. Thus; over the years, the idea of transformation almost been regarded as a taboo since the society has made people to believed that transformation causes damage to history. However, Kai & Marquis argue that these identities are merely scripts, and the evidence that supports the scripts are within the people carry them (Kai & Marquis, 2017). By this argument, the authors mean that people themselves know their own identities despite what the society claims for them. The authors support their argument by stating that if we fear losing ourselves without these identities, we shall be trapped into identities that we know fail us (Kai & Marquis, 2017).

Categorization of humans based on their race is made depending on their physicals, behavioral and more so cultural attributes which may signify that they share the same origin (Swinehart, 2018). Especially in the current society, race can also be defined as a group of people who share certain traits like skin color, hair texture, and other physical features. Race stems from the idea that there are groups of humans in the world and all have specific physical features or cultural ways which distinguish them from another group. For example, people may identify their races as aboriginals, African-American or black, Asian, Pacific Islander, Native Americans, and Hawaiian. Individuals may identify themselves with one or more social identities which also define their race. For example, individuals of African, Asian American, Native American or Hawaiian ethnicity may identify themselves as African-Americans. In reality, race is thought by many to be a social construct. A social construction is a term used to define any concept which has only been created by society at large. In this definition, race is not a natural phenomenon that can be found in other non-human species. Race has its roots in human history which are very ancient in terms of evolution since they date early pre-historic times of humankind; thus, making it to be a strong identity for people.

Class is defined as a social division whereby people are categorized according to their social or economic status (Swinehart, 2018). The social classes are a hierarchy, and each class has its own customs, values, beliefs, and habits. Individuals that belong in the higher classes within the hierarchy enjoy more privileges than those that belong in lower classes; where by, the rights and freedoms of those in higher classes are prioritized and observed more than those of lower classes. On the other side, punishments are severe for those that come from lower classes especially when they offend people from a higher class. For instance, Kai & Marquis, (2017) reflect on an episode of law-and-order SVU in which a black boy, from a black school confronted a white transgender teenage girl from another school. The white girl sustained a fall over a bride when she was pushed, she survived the initial fall, but later died because of complications related with the fall. Over the course of episode, the boy was constantly reminded that he had not just hurt anyone, but someone from a “protected class.” As a punishment for the offense, the black boy suffered serious consequences by being jailed for 3 years in juvenile and 4 more years in the adult prison upon his 18th birthday (Kai & Marquis, 2017).

Gender is a classification of sex in terms of the social and cultural roles played by men and women. It is one’s status as a man or woman, boy or girl. This also includes anatomy such as chromosomes, hormone levels, muscle mass, fat distribution (Swinehart, 2018). The concept of gendered behavior will vary by culture but often happens during development stages such as childhood. In western societies gender typically refers to sexual identity while other cultures might use it for social roles and roles assigned by the society itself. The term gender identity, or simply “gender”, is a person’s personal identification with the sex that they were assigned at birth and sometimes defined as embodying certain personality traits or characteristics that are typical for people of the opposite gender.


Swinehart, K. (2018). Gender, class, race, and region in “bilingual” Bolivia. Signs and Society, 6(3), 607-621. M. Green & Marquis Bey (2017) Where Black Feminist Thought and Trans* Feminism Meet: A Conversation, Souls, 19:4, 438-454,

The Concepts of Technology and Patent

The Concepts of Technology and Patent


Institutional Affiliation



Much of the techniques applied in the business world are engineered in an academic environment. An academic environment provides decisive solutions which answer problems of product orientation in a real market environment. A good example of this analysis is chapter five and chapter six of Hisrich et al (2010) 8th edition on entrepreneurship. This study will attempt to prove that Hisrich theoretical approach in relation to technology and patenting concepts is decisive to answer to challenges in a practical airline industry setup. The study is segmented into two main sections. Firstly, an analysis of the two concepts adopted from chapter five and chapter six. Secondly, the study will present a coherent discussion seconding the two concepts.

Technology Concept in Chapter Five

Hisrich (2010, p.133) assess the integral role of technology in empowering global organizations towards realization of decisive prudent managerial skills. For a global organization, the client-product-market driven strategy seems appealing since this approach seek to ensure that organization responds to direct demands of the client. Ideally, technology facilitates several thresholds of product development and product orientation. Research on the nature of the product is entirely client driven. Therefore, in contemplating about appliances it is integral to adopt Hisrich approach in relation to product development.

In business, integration of a business strategy and competence plan (in relation to technology) requests the consequential operations of the Research and Development department. Thus in enrolling technology, it is vital to request the RD department to investigate on the importance of ratings of any given technology. Also, Hisrich (2010, p. 132) examines the integral role of search engines in facilitating the company with much of the needed information. In fact in the later page, Hisrich covers the impetus role of business association in increasing productivity patterns. With time, technology proves a suitable platform to search for reliable business associates. Now the force behind business association is based on the knowledge that multiple layers of specialization have moved product orientation to-do-it-all approach to a to-do-best approach. For instance, in applying Hisrich approach in an aviation industry, it is good to note that technology will facilitate the determination of commercial inputs and consequently the nature of outputs.

As a result, scheduling technology innovation in the aviation industry will be subsequent towards realization of better policies. In Hisrich thoughts, an internal technology invention seems an appealing strategy. For example, the development of quality assessment software will be decisive in ensuring that quality standards are maintained at first class orientation. A good example of this system is an ERP system.

Patenting Concept in Chapter Six

Internal organization technical provisions may conflict with local or international legislative requirements. However, Hisrich (2010, p. 161-166), covers on the decisive role of understanding intellectual property rights and how this can be applied to safeguard a company against reprisal from national or international legislation systems. It is justifiable to apply this concept since the organization will be in a better position to pursue a number of technologically driven products. In aviation industry, products are increasing attracting patenting concerns. The underlying reason is because in the last one decade, there has been an influx in the number of potential players in the industry. While traditional players are attempting to present genuine products, newer players will often reformulate a product to make it appear original. This means that patents will impose on a substantial resource allocation in the incremental budgeting concern.

Further into this application, is the knowledge that the proposed software development strategy attracts vicious reprisal in relation to patents. Hisrich (2010, p. 166) covers algorithms that are considered in developing the nature of pure thoughts. In this light, patents should be considered a decisive mental process that seeks to move an organization from one step of innovation to the other. In particular, the software itself is a computer. Suh (2010, pp. 377) argues that a software- that is computer code, is not considered a statutory subject matter. Decisively, this means that codes are only patentable if proof of originality can be proved. Patentable software is one that seeks to respond to challenges which were not responded to by previous systems


Much of Hisrich’s debate is centered on the various stages of turning a company into a global player. Thus, when it comes to product development it is inopportune that the country will have to comply with international standards. Technically, the airline company is a close replica of a company in a similar turf. However, there are various benefits that can be affiliated to Hisrich’s concepts. Firstly, if a company applies a technology strategy to empower innovation, the company will stand a better position to effectively manage its resources, projects and as well make critical levels in the development of a manufacturing process. Sari et al (2012, pp. 14-15) second this opinion in what the trio justifies as an increased access to valuable information in a corporate, clear global view. As a result of better and increased access to information, the company will be in a better position to manage its resources. Also, the prudent and tighter controls for financial compliance declaration are inversely facilitated at this point.

Again, a technology driven approach will be vital in expanding the sales pool enabling the firm to achieve considerate microeconomic goals. Primarily, research is oriented towards the development of products which are cost effective but respond to direct needs of the society. In this light, seconding Hisrch approach is integral in orienting the company to a greater financial stability level. Lastly, a technology based approach will be instrumental in ensuring that the firm is in a greater position to restructure internal organizational policies; for instance, procurement policy which amount to customer demands.

Conversely, it is good to consider the aggregate protection of corporate products in the wider commitment towards the creation of a competitive approach. Putnam (2004) reflects on the contractual benefits of patenting as applied in a business organization. Top of the list is the prevention against theft of the invention. Ideally, applying Hisrch approach is technically fronted towards establishing a reliable licensing/ inverse investing stratagem. In fact, the licensed product will add value to the list of the company assets thus improving the value of the company. Secondly, the licensed product will boost competition since the product improves the overall niche of product development and as well improving on the quality of products development. Thirdly, increased usage of innovative products will conversely encourage the building of higher profits margins. Indeed, the ability to seclude other competitors will enable the company to leap higher prospects in relation to profits (Andergassen 2010, pp. 202)


Ideally, implementing a business strategy is inspired by the academia-driven technical strategy. Academics present visionary analysis on what happens in a practical market. Technically, this approach is designed to ensure that decisive measures and scope are designed to inspire a learner on the fundamentality of observing a theoretically based approach for the enrollment a coherent industrial setup. However, distancing from theories, this study has assessed chapter five and chapter six of Hisrich et al (2010) 8th edition on entrepreneurship. The study picked two integral concepts courtesy of technological concept and the patenting concept, and as a result, the study has assessed their imperativeness in a real business environment.


Andergassen, R. (2010). Product market competition, incentives and fraudulent behavior.

Economics Letters, 107(2), 201-204.

Hisrich, R. D., Peters, M. A., & Shepherd, D. A. (2010). Entrepreneurship (8th

ed.). Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, p. 205.

Putnam, J. D. (2004). Costs and Benefits of Genomics Patents. American Journal ofPharmacoGenomics, 4(5), 277-292.

Sari, N., Hidayanto, A., & Handayani, P. (2012). Toward Catalog of Enterprise ResourcePlanning (ERP) Implementation Benefits for Measuring ERP Success. The Journal ofHuman Resources Management Research, 4, 1-16.

Suh, D., & Hwang, J. (2010). An Analysis Of The Effect Of Software Intellectual PropertyRights On The Performance Of Software Firms In South Korea. Technovation, 30(5-6),376-385.