Documents uncovered after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska revealed that Exxon could have used double-hulled oil tankers that would have prevented the spill, but the cost of refitting their fleet of single-hulled tankers was considered too high. Exxon determined that the cost of cleaning up an oil spill would be less than the cost of refitting the ships, thus increasing shareholder value. Several years after the oil spill, however, Exxon was fined billions of dollars for the spill.
(1) How do the costs of the clean up and the fines pertain to a discussion of maximizing shareholder value and ethical responsibility?
(2) Must have at least 2 scholarly journal references not Wikipedia or Investopedia. At least 350 words.