Surgical procedures involved in ‘fitting’ adult lungs in the child
In case, one or both lungs are affected by an infection where a lung transplant is carried out to replace the diseased lungs with healthy ones. Lungs which are used for transplantation are donated from people who are about died and had decided to donate their organs before their death. To make adult lungs fit a child, two procedural ways are followed. One of the ways involves trimming off the pieces of the lung that makes it match the size of the chest cavity of the child. In the second procedure, where the adult lungs are compared to the child, a small portion of the lung from the adult is used. This portion is referred as a lobe which is then used during transplant. (Orens, 2006).
The lungs from the recipient must be free from diseases such as pneumonia so that they do not cause complications during and after surgery. Other clinical procedures such as testing the blood groups of the donor and the recipient are carried out to reduce cases of rejection. Other clinical procedures that carried out includes diagnostic tests which are carried out to check the health of the patient. Sarah who undergone lung surgery received her lung from an adult hence the doctors preferred trimming the lung. It was the simplest way so as the lungs can fit in her chest. Several surgeons are involved in the process of lung transplant should take a short period as possible. The surgery was smoothly done as per the recommendations of the doctor who operated her as well as prove from her family that she is recovering exceptionally well (Higenbottam, 1988).
Mechanics of breathing, with respiratory structures Sarah will use to breathe using respiratory chapter 23a and 23b
Breathing is a mechanism that involves several integrated aspects. Breathing mechanism is an automatic mechanism in that the lungs and diaphragm contracts and relaxes without any stimulation. Mechanics of breathing first includes actions which are specific which occurs in the skeletal muscles. The skeletal muscles which are involved with this procedure are the muscles that are involved in breathing such as the internal and external intercostal muscles. The second mechanic of breathing is that the volume of the thoracic cavity changes. In case of breathing out, the size of the thoracic cavity decreases. On the other side, during breathing in the volume of the thoracic cavity increases. It significantly gives room for the lungs to contract as well as relax simultaneously.
The third process of breathing involves the changing of the pressure in the thoracic cavity in response to the changes in the volume of the lungs. The changes of decrease or increase in pressure in the thoracic cavity are based on the Boyles’s gas law. When the volume of the thoracic cavity increases, pressure decreases hence air is forced to enter into the lungs. When the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases, pressure increases, thus air is expelled out of the lungs. The forth mechanic involves pressure gradients which takes place in the thoracic cavity (Christie, 2010). Additionally, the fifth procedure involves changes in volume and pressure which are directly associated with the process of breathing. During and after the surgery, Sarah used life supporting machines which work as close to what lungs does by providing enough oxygen to all body parts as well as to remove toxic substances primarily from the body cells such as carbon (IV) oxide, which if left to accumulate would cause rapid death of the cells.
The success rate for her surgery and how it is done todayThe success rate of lung transplant depends on the center where the operation was carried out. In most experienced centers, the chances that death will occur within the first thirty days of transplant is as low as five percent translating that after the successful operation has been carried out, there are high chances of survival. The survival rate of one year lies between eighty to ninety percent with much dependence on the how the company is experienced. How complicated the condition is in a patient is directly related to the survival rate. Half of the patients who undergoes lung transplant live for about five years while a third of the patients make it to ten years.
In recent days, a lung transplant technology has continuously been improved making the process safer hence chances of survival are high. Many surgeons have been involved in the process of a lung transplant in many countries hence coming up with new ways of carrying out the process. The recent successful lung transplant which was carried out on Sarah in the United States is signified that the process is continued correctly than before where survival rate was low. Furthermore, a lung transplant is carried out in most experienced companies where success rates are continuously reported.
Orens, J. B., Estenne, M., Arcasoy, S., Conte, J. V., Corris, P., Egan, J. J., … & Martinez, F. J. (2006). International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates: 2006 update—a consensus report from the Pulmonary Scientific Council of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. The Journal of heart and lung transplantation, 25(7), 745-755.
Higenbottam, T., Stewart, S., Penketh, A., & Wallwork, J. (1988). Transbronchial lung biopsy for the diagnosis of rejection in heart-lung transplant patients. Transplantation, 46(4), 532-539.
Christie, J. D., Edwards, L. B., Kucheryavaya, A. Y., Aurora, P., Dobbels, F., Kirk, R., … & Hertz, M. I. (2010). The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: twenty-seventh official adult lung and heart-lung transplant report—2010. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 29(10), 1104-1118.