The contemporary American political philosophies
The United States of America is a highly diversified country – with people from very different backgrounds. The country has seen several political parties since independence but at the moment there are two political parties – Democratic Party and Republican Party – that define American political ideology. The Democratic Party was formed by Thomas Jefferson back in 1792. It is committed to fighting for the poor, weak, marginalized and downtrodden by advocating for a government framework that gives them the full opportunity to enjoy the American dream. The Republican Party came into existence in the early 1850s and produced Abraham Lincoln as the first president from the party. Their ideology promotes minimal government involvement in people’s welfare, leaving the economy to run freely. The country is roughly divided equally behind these two opposing political camps, at least according to results of major elections held recently. During elections, the electorate is usually split almost evenly between liberal democratic principles and republican ideology that is more conservative. This divide is seen in all major issues affecting the country and the people, and each side presents strong arguments to support their stand.
Democrats generally ascribe to a liberal philosophy where government has a major role of overseeing and regulating the economy. In addition to this, democratic principles also advocate for the redistribution of economic wealth to benefit the needy people. Democrats believe it is the duty of the government to ensure all people are well taken care of, through programs like food stamps, social welfare, healthcare and education for those in need. The government should provide a social safety net for every individual as well as opportunities for all regardless of power or wealth.
Republican philosophy is more conservative and members believe it is not the government’s responsibility to take care of individuals. The party believes in personal responsibility, where individuals determine how they want to live, and being left to succeed or fail based on their own efforts without government input. Republicans believe that things like education, employment and healthcare are personal choices that the government should not determine for an individual. Furthermore, they believe that each individual’s freedom, dignity and ability should be respected. Theirs is a market-oriented approach with minimal government interference.
From election results in the last six presidential elections, democratic presidential candidates have garnered majority votes in five instances. This is taken to reflect a trend in which the country is becoming more receptive to democratic ideology. This is seen from the strong support the democrats draw on issues like healthcare, taxes, economic growth and government regulation. This is because the Democratic Party proposes to a government that helps the people to ensure that the weak in society also get a decent life. Republicans want to leave people on their own to take care of themselves, even for the disadvantaged who are unable to do so. In a republican set up, the rich are likely to flourish while the poor continue to suffer.
Economy and employment
It has been established that the American economy performs better under Democrat presidents than republican presidents. Ideologically, democrats support balancing budgets, increasing taxes on the higher income bracket, and fair trade. On the opposite side, republicans believe in lowering the tax burden, limiting government spending on social welfare programs, and letting handle their own economic well-being. Over the decades, republicans have come to be seen as a party of trade restrictions, fiscal irresponsibility, failing micro-economics and big government. As for democrats, they are relatively viewed as fiscally responsible, having good microeconomic policies, and allowing free trade and competitive markets.
An analysis of federal budget statistics indicates a tendency for government deficit to rise during republican presidencies. For example, both Reagan and Bush introduced tax cuts in 1981 and 2001 respectively, with the result being a poor long-term budget outlook. In between the two republicans, Clinton’s administration recorded declining deficits and eventually high surpluses. In as much as many factors affect the overall budget, Clinton took two important steps that boosted economic growth. First, he established new trends for spending and tax revenues. Secondly, his “Save social security first” strategy helped to successfully block republicans desire to cut taxes, and even the democrats desire to increase spending. Thus, he was able to preserve the new surpluses the government had gained.
Republicans are supposed to put more effort into fighting inflation but in practice, their presidents have tended to put pressure on the Fed to relax on monetary policy. They are also expected to support small government but it has been shown that federal employment rises during republican governments. When it comes to free trade, republican actions are contrary to what their proclamations of support. They are known for protectionist actions like tariffs and export restraints. Many of the country’s economic decisions are hindered by current national security issues. There is increased spending on national security and this seems to be hurting other areas of the economy. Much of this increase is usually seen during republican presidencies, especially in recent years under George W. Bush.
Data from the U.S. Census on annual changes in income, unemployment and poverty over the last 50 years indicate that minority groups flourish under democratic governments but lose ground when republicans take over. Economic improvements happen to the whole nation as a whole under democrats, not just minority groups, as white Americans also fair better under democrats. This is one of the reasons why President Obama overwhelmingly won the black and Latino vote. The differences in economic performance under the two parties can be attributed to inherent ideological differences. Minority groups tend to fall under poor or lower-income bracket, and Democrat ideology calls for the protection and boosting of these groups economically. Democrat policies usually favor these groups, for example Clinton’s expansion of the earned income tax credits gave low-income earners tax refunds. Democrats usually introduce a range of policies that are intended to boost minority communities on issues like education and immigration reforms.
Democrat presidents tend to emphasize overall economic and job growth that ends up benefitting everyone, including minorities. Republicans, on the other hand, put more emphasis on reducing inflation, even if it means unemployment rising as a result. With the minority groups growing in numbers, and most U.S. children being born to minority parents, economic gains for minorities make the overall economy stronger for all Americans. Therefore, there is a tendency for voters, both whites and minorities, to support democratic ideologies on the economy and even other issues.
The Democratic Party aims to expand education opportunities and make them available for every child today. This is seen clearly in President Obama’s policy of “No Child Left Behind”. The party aims to achieve this policy through expanded government support, and a raft of other measures like cutting student loan rates, and introducing deductibles on college tuition tax. By paying for expanded education policies using higher taxation, the democrats are staying true to their principles on redistribution of wealth. Republicans approach to education is guided by the principle of personal responsibility with less government support. They believe that federal government should not get involved with state and local schools. From these two positions, it is clear that the democrat approach is more popular with many people. Minority groups and many white people are likely to support the Democratic Party based on their efforts to make education available and affordable to all.
Democrats propose that the federal government provides a healthcare system that includes everyone, so that everyone gets access to healthcare coverage. Democrats want to force citizens to purchase healthcare insurance through the government. The proposed Obamacare aims to achieve this mainly through increasing taxation on the higher income bracket. Republicans have been vehemently opposed to Obamacare and any universal healthcare program that is funded through government. Whereas they also propose a more affordable healthcare program, they plan to achieve this through lowering taxes for people who purchase health insurance, so that it is easier for them to purchase on their own. According to republican principles, it is wrong for those who are on welfare to get health insurance from the government, while many hard-working people cannot afford it. In such a situation, republicans are likely to get support from well-to-do Americans who can afford their won private health insurance. As for minority groups and many white Americans who struggle with health insurance payments, the democratic route presents a better option since they will have a ‘safety net’ even when they cannot afford healthcare.
America has long been seen as the land of opportunity and many immigrants make every effort to get there, whether legally or otherwise. The number of immigrants has been on the increase and their presence is being felt significantly. This has made immigration a very hot issue in the U.S. political arena. Democrats are sympathetic to immigrants in their policies and ideologies and this has seen them get a lot of political support from them. According to democrats, immigrants who are already in America should be afforded the same opportunities as U.S. citizens so that they work and contribute to the economy. Republicans are against illegal immigrants earning the same opportunities as U.S. citizens. They believe that immigrants are taking opportunities that should be available to citizens, and all illegal immigrants should be deported. With such a harsh republican stand on immigration, they are likely to get support from the Latino vote and any other migrant group in the U.S. Even immigrants who are already settled in the U.S. legally are sympathetic to illegal immigrants. As minority groups grow in number, they tend to boost democratic political base and make the country more popular overally in the country.
Republicans favor a more American involvement in world affairs backed by a strong military presence. They believe that the best way to keep America safe is through pre-emptive military intervention against perceived threats and enemies. To this extent, they support increased military spending and excursions abroad. They also want a tough stance against countries like Iran and Syria. Republicans are usually seen as pro-war and believe America should use its military right to secure the rights of its citizens and the rest of the world. They see America playing an oversight role over the rest of the world and flexing its military muscle as much as possible.
On the opposite side, democrats are anti-war and prefer to cut military spending and reduce American military intervention abroad. Democrats have been at the forefront in trying to bring American troops back home from Iraq and Afghanistan. Whereas the republican approach was seen as the best way to fight the threat of terrorism, major failures have made many people rethink their support. For example, there were no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq yet the public was misled to believe that was the reason for the invasion in the first place. Saddam may no longer be there, but Iraq is not anyway safer, with rampant sectarian violence that has claimed many U.S. troops stationed there.
The republican push for a stronger American input in world affairs may have been well intended initially but the outcomes have left many Americans disillusioned. The main concerns include the loss of American lives fighting abroad and the amount of government spending that goes into those wars. This is especially so if the public feels that military intervention may not be necessary in the first place. Furthermore, republican-driven wars, like the Iraq Invasion, have been followed by tough economic times back at home. Whether there is a clear connection between wars and subsequent economic turmoil or not, public perception is that wars are costing America a lot more than they should. For this reason, the democrat approach of less military spending and less American military presence across the world is looking more attractive. Furthermore, democrats have been steadfast and consistent with their approach to foreign policy while republicans have been floundering on their stand regarding the same.
Democrats firmly believe in the concept that all humanity deserves liberty, and human individuals sometimes have to be restrained for their own good and the good of others. However, there is that inherent belief that the government should have greater control on people’s day-to-day lives. This can only be achieved, of course, through higher taxes. Republicans want lots of individual freedom, especially when it comes to business and other economic activities. However, this only applies to Americans, especially the white folks in the Republican Party. They will not raise so much concern if people are being denied individual liberties abroad, or even if the same is happening at home to minority groups.
Religion is another hot issue that shows clear divide between republicans and democrats. Republicans, on the extreme, can be termed as religious zealots. They believe it is their duty to enforce God’s will and plan on the people. They tie their religious commitment to the preservation of traditional family values. For this reason, republicans are strongly opposed to abortion and are even against contraceptive use. They believe abstinence and following God’s word is enough to solve problems like teen pregnancies. Republicans are also strongly opposed to the issue of gay rights, which they consider ungodly and should not be permitted. Gay rights are a threat to traditional family values espoused by the republicans.
Democrat approach to religion is hinged on the fundamental belief in individual liberties. For this reason, they are relaxed on religion and accommodate a whole range of religious views, including atheists. By extension, they believe in an individual’s right to make a whole range of choices without strictly following the traditional teachings of the church. On the issue of abortion, democrats believe that it is the right of the woman to choose whether she wants to have a baby or not. To this end, democrats usually support family health programs both home and abroad. Democrats also advocate for gay rights as an important element of individual liberties. This support has gained the Democratic Party a lot of support from the LGBT group, which is becoming very vocal and very influential on the public political arena.
Democrats relaxed approach to such issues like religion, gays and abortion make it more appealing to young, urban populations that are grappling with these issues on a daily basis. The republican views on the same are seen by many as retrogressive and unfair on individuals. America is a diverse nation of different cultures and the republicans seem to be promoting only white American culture and seeking to impose it on the rest of the people. Democrats are seen to be more accommodating by allowing a wide range of personal choices on issues of religion, culture and personal preference. For this reason, democrats are appealing to the educated white Americans in urban areas and the rest of the non-white Americans. With the population of non-white Americans on the rise, their political input is becoming increasingly important and the Democratic Party is gaining a lot from having embraced these groups with accommodative ideologies.
American political landscape is roughly divided equally between two opposing camps – democrats and republicans. These two political parties have strikingly divergent political ideologies that influence their views on various important issues that affect American people and the nation at large. Democrats believe it is the duty of the government to ensure that each citizen enjoys a quality life. For this reason, the government must take an active role in providing services like healthcare, education and economic empowerment, especially to weak groups that are unable to afford these things on their own. Republicans favor less government involvement in such matters, instead advocating for individuals to be left free to determine their own lives.
The difference in ideology between the two parties is seen in the way they run government when in power. Democrats favor increasing taxes on the higher income bracket and a free trade economy. They want more government spending on social welfare programs, and less on the military. Republicans want to lower taxes on the rich and reduce government spending on social welfare. They prefer everyone to take care of themselves with no special protections for the weak and underprivileged. Republicans want a strong American involvement in world affairs, mainly achieved through flexing its military muscle. They are usually proponents of war while Democrats generally oppose wars. The democratic stand on a range of issues like religion, immigration, individual liberties and social welfare has made it very attractive to more Americans, especially the growing proportion of minority groups. This is why Democrats have been able to appeal to the modern voter more than the conservative republicans.
Appleby, J. The American Vision. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2005.
Campbell, Andrea, L. How Policies Make Citizens: Senior Political Activism and the American Welfare State. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
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Witcover, J. “Rise and Fall of the Great Society.” In Party of the People: A history of the Democrats. New York: Random House, 518. 2003.
Woodward, Bob, Maestro: Greenspan’s Fed and American Boom, New York, Simon and Schuster, 2000.
The Constitutionality Of The Bank Of The United States, 1791 By Thomas Jefferson
The two documents such as the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States, 1791 by Thomas Jefferson to Washington and document 5; Alexander Hamilton, Opinion on the constitutionality of the Bank was written in same times but with different authors. Thomas Jefferson happened to be the author of the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States which was written in 1791, and Alexander Hamilton as well was the author of opinions on the constitutionality of the Bank written in the same year. All the two documents were letters written to answer the request of Washington.
However, in the two documents, Hamilton is said to have drawn his answer to Washington’s request much more deliberately than Thomas Jefferson. Hamilton was able to give the best answer because he had papers written from Virginians Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Edmund Randolph against the creation of the Bank of the United States hence allowing him to have arguments on what he was to answer. According to Thomas Jefferson, he quotes that; “If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children wake up homeless on the continent their Fathers conquered…I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies… The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs,” (Hamilton, Alexander & Jefferson, pg. 103).Research shows that Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton have been the most studied and beloved figures in the American history. And today, standard bearers of conservatism, radicalism as well as liberalism are utilizing their complex views to legitimize their arguments. The study also shows that various laws, values and customs have shaped the development of banking institutions in the United States in a distinctive way; however, it is evident that none has done so more than the vicious debate between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson over the development of the bank in 1791. Conversely, as the United States look toward banking reforms as a result of the economic collapse which took place in 2008, it may be critical to understand how the two document debate have become institutionalized into the America political fabric. For instance the Federalist and the anti-Federalist debate concerning the creation of the central bank as well as, the regulation of financial institutions created a yes or a no framework which up-to-date still dominates the American national political debate (Hamilton, Alexander & Jefferson, pg. 103).The two documents were written for different reasons. It is true that, each author wanted to accomplish something important by writing them down in a document format. The 1791 debate over central banking in the two documents were controversial. This is because, the central banking debate was largely rooted in anti-federalist as well as, federalist tensions, the second reason why the debate was controversial was that, the battle over the bank became an overly simplistic debate that was founded on its constitutionality which left no room for negotiation.Hamiltons’ opinion on the bank laid classical arguments of the people who favored an effective central government as well as a national power. However, according to Jefferson, he argued “the foundation of the constitution stated that all powers not delegated to the United States, by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people…” The main reason as to why Jefferson wrote a letter to Washington was that, Jefferson was Washington’s Secretary of State as part of Washington’s cabinet where he wanted to persuade George Washington by opposing the establishment of national banks in the U.S (Hamilton, Alexander & Jefferson, pg. 103).In the letter written by Thomas Jefferson, he condemned the system of banking as being “a blot” on the constitution, as corrupt, and that long-term government debt was “swindling” future generations. He quotes “I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around will deprive the people of all property until their children wake-up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered. The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people, to whom it properly belongs.” From this quote, I believed that Jefferson indeed had no love for private banks, and that was actually what he wanted to accomplish by writing it down in a document. He goes on and says; “It is not easy to estimate the obstacles which, in the beginning, we should encounter in ousting the banks from their possession of the circulation; but a steady and judicious alternation of emissions and loans, would reduce them in time” (Hamilton, Alexander & Jefferson, pg. 103).The two documents actually revealed what was happening in America society in regards to the central banking debate. There were various events that took place to which the two documents referred to directly, first, the social contract did not give the Parliament a complete political authority over its colonists and thus all the powers of government, legislative, executive, and judiciary, were all resulting into a legislative body. Conversely, in economic matters, Jefferson believed that agriculture should be the backbone of the nation, however, Hamilton on the other hand, wanted a balanced economy of agriculture finance, manufacturing and trade making the two differ in their opinions.
ConclusionTo move the debate towards a more and good constructive framework as well as, to better manage these creative tensions; I therefore, propose that the bankers, the public, along with the politicians should do the following; First, they should develop a deliberate effort of identifying and understanding the complexities which may exist in guiding the fiscal policy. Second, the public along with their elected officials should ensure that they take ownership of the issue as well as, understand that central banks are limited in their capacity so as to prevent on the economic calamities. Lastly, the government should achieve an unprecedented level of transparency in the process in order to gain the trust and understanding of the American people. Conversely, reframing the debate in approach that is transparent will give politicians understand and feel comfortable with the Federal and thus utilize the Federal in the best way possible.
Daniels, Jonathan. Ordeal of ambition; Jefferson, Hamilton, Burr.. [1st ed. New York: Doubleday, 2009. Print.
Hamilton, Alexander, Thomas Jefferson, and Frederick Clarke Prescott. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson; representative selections,. New York: American Book Co., 2008. Print.
McDonald, Forrest. “The Rhetoric of Alexander Hamilton.” The Imaginative Conservative. N.p., 2006 Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.theimaginativeconservative.org/2012/06/rhetoric-of-alexander-hamilton.html>.
Institution of Affiliation
The constitution is one of the highest symbols of unity that acts to protect the citizens of a country. The constitution was set up to make the new government strong enough such that it could be able to promote commerce and as well protect the properties of the United States citizens. The constitution also is responsible for the prevention of the threats that gets imposed by the excessive democracy, thereby regulating the abuse of democracy and its meaning. In encouraging the popular consent of the constitution, the House of Representatives is designed such that it is directly responsible to the people while the Senate against the potential for the excessive in the house. The United States Constitution provides a direct popular election of the representatives besides the protection of its citizens’ rights and liberties. The constitution grants the Congress important and influential powers while any power not enumerated in the texts is reserved for the States. The Constitution was designed to institute a presidency with energy capable of making timely and decisive actions in regards to the public interests. The framers of the constitution established the Supreme Court that would be responsible for the nationalizing the governmental powers as well as checking the radical democratic impulses while at the same time guiding against the potential interference with the liberty and the property of the new national government itself.
The framers’ concerns are addressed by the various provisions of the constitution of national unity and power including the clause for the promotion of reciprocity among the state. The amendment of the constitution is not an easy process as the procedures for the amendment found in Article V are so difficult and difficult. Among the first ten amendments to the constitution included the adoption of the bill of rights in the year 1791. The principle of separation of powers in the constitution guards against possible misuse of power basing it on Montesquieu’s theory that power must be used to balance power. The balancing of power is overseen through devising a system of two sovereigns to which include the states and the central government.
The rights of criminally accused
Just like every other individual is entitled to the rights and freedoms in the constitution, the same applies to the criminally accused individuals. The fourth, fifth, sixth as well as the eighth amendments are the essence of the due process of the law stipulating the rights of every citizen against arbitrary actions by the national as well as the states governments. The core purpose of the due process is the leveling of the playing field between the accused person and the all-powerful state and thereby defining the limits of the government’s action against the personal liberty of every citizen. According to the American traditions, it is far worse to convict an innocent person than setting a guilty person free, to which the judicial systems hold the values.
The fourth amendment of the constitution protects against unreasonable searches and seizures, to which controversies have been raised against the issue regarding the drug-related searches, the DNA evidence as well as the government surveillance. The Fifth Amendment requires the grand of the jury for the majority of for the majority of the crimes, protecting against double jeopardy and provides for the section stipulating that one cannot testify by force against oneself. The other fundamental clause of the fifth regards the takings clause to which extends to each citizen protection against the taking of private property without just compensation. The purpose of the clause is to assert limits on the powers of the eminent domain through procedures that require the showing of a public purpose and the provision of the payments that are fair in the event of seizure of a person’s property. The sixth amendment requires a speedy trial to the accused as well as the right to witnesses and counsel. The eighth amendment prohibits on the cruel and the unusual punishment, with the possession of a significant challenge in the interpretation in that what is considered cruel and unusual varies from culture to culture as well as from generation to another.
The media, government and public opinion
There are important forces that contribute to the shaping of the opinions in the marketplace of ideas, and they include the government, the news media as well as the private groups. The effect on the public opinion can be limited despite the efforts of all the governments to try to influence, manipulate or even manage the citizens’ beliefs. Majority of the ideas that happen to become more prominent in the political life are mostly developed and even spread by the economic and the political groups to which search for issues responsible for the advancing their cause. The media is regarded as the opinion maker through their potential impact of interpretation of the events. The relationship between the public opinion and the government policy his dynamic as the policy responds to the opinion and the opinions tend to shift based on the new government policies. More affluent and educated citizens may have a disproportionate influence over politics and the public policies decision due to their tendency to vote at higher rates and therefore are more likely to contribute money to the political campaigns.
In measuring the public opinion, the politicians and the public officials make extensive use of the public opinion polls which aids them in making decisions. For a political survey to be an accurate representation of the people, appropriate sampling method, sufficient sample size and the avoidance of the selection bias should be emphasized. Big data and the social media offer new ways of measuring public opinions on a mass scale. The pollsters are capable of inferring the opinions based on the online trend, and both parties maintain massive databases that track the activities from voting behavior to consumer preferences.
The Constitution Amendments
The Constitution Amendments
A constitutional amendment is usually an added correction or formal change mainly in the current written constitutions text of a state or nation. The constitution text itself is sometimes altered in some jurisdictions while others don’t change but the recommended effects change with the amendments.
It is with the above understanding that a formal amendment can then be described as change in the constitutions language in relation with the outlined procedures stipulated in the article v document. Its procedures description is stated as requiring a majority vote of two-thirds in both the Senate and the house, after which the proposal that is approved by the congress is sent for ratification by the state.
The process of amending or changing the constitution can be said was made challenging intentionally by the founders since their initial goal was to make the constitution more stable in order to serve even the coming generations. They took into account that once a new government is entrenched it would sideline or ignore laws that would reduce its hold on power and in this account they intentionally included in article V, a separate amendment process that would keep in check the president, congress and the Supreme Court (Antonin Scalia.et, al, 1998).
The informal amendment process indicates to changes in the application or interpretation of the constitution. This would extend to refer to expansion in the rights within the constitution like voting, to even previously excluded groups, or rights curtailing, that mainly depend on the previously held congress or court justice constitutional beliefs. Such changes usually happen due to the effects caused by the decisions made by the judiciary, usually by the congressional legislation or Supreme Court that are not considered as unconstitutional. It is however vital to note that the constitution is not affected in any way by the informal amendment process, just by its application and understanding, that is in a constant influx state due to the devolving or evolving sociopolitical conditions.
Strict constitution constructions refer to the strict application of the initial laws written by law or in the constitutions text. Subsequently, loose construction implies to the flexibility to do whatever an individual wants as long as they are not stated as illegal within the constitution. The two divergent perspectives aligns with formal versus informal methods of change due to their application in that the informal application tends to have more strict construction characteristics, while the informal method tends to align more with the loose construction which dictates the federal government to go against the usual stipulated laws within the constitution(Kenneth Dautrich.et,al,2012).
I particularly favor the loose construction method since its application allows for flexibility and this gives it a more humane and dynamic aspect in that like humans it is susceptible to changes. This freedom in the application is in contrast to the strict constructionism which is too rigid in its application and requires a strict application of particular judicial and legal philosophy interpretations that restrict and limit the implementation of the judicial and does not allow for any divergence once chosen.
The main reasons to support the loose constructionism or living constitution is in the constitutions concept that implies that the constitutional interpretation application is silent in itself, the elements of the living constitution indicate that the founders, most of who were legal theorists and lawyers, were already aware of the underlying issues, which means that they knew beforehand the implications and confusion that would have arose due to the lack of clear interpretation of the constitution. In addition this implies that if the founders intended the constitution to be interpreted differently by future generations they would have indicated it, and the lack of such clause indicate clearly that there was no such intention and there was never intended to be a fixed method of interpreting the constitution.
In relation to the above pragmatic argument, it is evident that if judges were not allowed to participate in the constitutional rights interpretation, the current modern society values would not have been reflected more, and this would have necessitated a recurrent amendment to incorporate the changes which has never happened.
Another reason for the preference would be on the aspect of not viewing the living constitution as the governing society’s foundational concept and not simply as just a law. This is in the understanding that laws in order to be followed have to be clear and fixed, and if the constitution can be looked at as more than a set of laws can provide the foundation for the laws since they will act as guidance and in this way the benefits and costs of such fixed concept and meanings will be different.
Antonin Scalia and Amy Gutmann, (1998) A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 36–41
Kenneth Dautrich, David A. Yalof (2012) The Enduring Democracy, engage Learning. Print
The Connections Between Four Different Unrelated Pieces Of Literature
The essay will take four different unrelated pieces of literature that includes; A & P by John Updike, Harlem Dancer by Claude McKay, the Prison by Bernard Malamud and The Right to Fail by William Zinsser. The connections between each of them will be then analyzed out so as to form a unique claim. In the short story A & P, the author John Updike describes the customers with great detail and on the other hand gives each character the names which subtlety describes their personalities. However in Harlem Dancer by Claude McKay, the author is against the habit of judging the books without the covers more than what a person can give. Bernard Malamud is a renowned and well respected American Jewish writer born in 1914 and died in 1986. His work includes novels, collections, nonfiction, and short stories. Most of what is featured in his writing is human conditions of Jewish life through his experience while growing up in New York. William zinner was a journalist and non fiction writer. As a teacher, his career began on New York Herad Tribune. His most famous work was a book on writing well, his books range from memoir, commentary, baseball, and craft of writing and so on.
In the stories of A & P by John Updike and Harlem Dancer by Claude McKay, the authors seemed to have something common in their literary works. The connection of the two stories is that, the story of A & P by John Updike, the narrator eyes are caught by three barefoot girls in their bathing suits while checking groceries. However in Harlem Dancer by Claude McKay, the poem talks about beautiful young prostitute woman, half-clothed body sway who entertains people with her dancing but she is not happy when she does so, but covers it up by smiling (Claude pg 123, 2004). In both the two scenarios, the stories show the exposure of the nakedness of the women that makes the stories to look somehow similar.
In Bernard Malamud’s the prison, he suggests that for a person to be fully a man they should accept the limitations that are most painful (Bernard pg 142 2013). He further states that those that escape the limitations are only able to achieve self-negating kind of freedom that is illusionary as they come out as less responsible human beings. He states that life is full of struggles and only the ability to overcome this struggles will make one successful. In William Zinsser’s right to fail he talks of a person’s right to take risks and chances. He further states that it is not wrong to make mistakes .so that one can be successful it is required that they fail a number of times so that they can discover their weaknesses and strengths. The writer underlines the reasons why people should not be afraid of failure since most people want to be successful they should know that even if they fail there is always room for doing a different thing. Both writers acknowledge the fact that there are challenges in life that can cause someone to make mistakes. They both suggest that the ability to overcome these challenges or deal with these mistakes accordingly will make someone successful.
Baraceros Henry “English for a Better World. The Right to Fail by William Zinsser. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013.
Malamud, Benard . “Bernard Malamud.” Fantastic Fiction. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013. <http://www.fantasticfiction.co.uk/m/bernard-malamud/>.
McKay, Claude . “The Harlem Dancer, by Claude McKay.” Poetry Archive | Poems. N.p., 2004 Web. 11 Mar. 2013. <http://www.poetry-archive.com/m/the_harlem_dancer.html>.
The Connection between White Supremacy and Class in the United States
White supremacy refers to the ideas and beliefs that purport that white people or individuals that have natural white skin are superior over other human racial groups. In a contemporary context, the white supremacist term is employed in describing the groups that espouse fascist or racist doctrines. Noteworthy, supremacist groups are been known to use violence to attain their goals. The race is the notion that the human species is categorized into unique groups based on behavioral and physical differences. Essentially, race is any human social groups that can be categorized according to perceived similarities in physical traits. Class refers to a group of people that have the same socioeconomic status. In the United States, the white supremacy doctrine was taken for granted by social and political leaders from the 19th to mid-20th century. This essay discusses the connection between white supremacy and class in the United States.
Various events, laws and people exacerbated the racial and class divisions that existed in the early American period. One such event was the civil rights movement that advocated for social justice for people of color in the 1950s and 1960s. While the Civil War got rid of slavery, it did not put an end to unequal treatment and discrimination of people of color. Black people continued to face the devastating effects of racism, particularly in the South. By mid-20th century, people of color had endured violence and prejudice against them (Bateman, Ira, and John, 24). Black Americans alongside numerous white Americans mobilized and an unprecedented fight pushing for equality that lasted two decades.
Jim Crow laws also contributed to class and racial divisions in the early American Period. People of color had made some progress in their equality agenda after the constitution granted people of color equal protection as white people. The 15th Amendment to the constitution of 1870 gave Black Americans the right to vote. Still numerous white supremacists, moreso those in the South, were not happy that the people they once enslaved had similar rights as them (M. Beliso‐De Jesús, and Jemima, 65). They, therefore, came up with Jim Crow laws to erase the progress made during Reconstruction and keep them segregated from their white counterparts. The laws were put in place in the South towards the end of the 19th century. The Jim Crow laws ensured that people of color and white people used different public facilities. The laws also ensured that people of color could not live in the same towns or attend the same schools as their white counterparts. Furthermore, Jim Crow laws criminalized interracial marriage and made it impossible for people of color to vote without passing the voter literacy test. Despite Jim Crow laws not being adopted in the northern states, people of color experienced discrimination in their jobs or in accessing education or in attempting to purchase a house (Roediger, 42). To make the issue worse, the laws passed in some states continued to limit the voting rights of people of color. The segregation brought about by the Jim Crow laws gained ground in 1896 after the Supreme Court ruled in the Plessy v. Ferguson case that it was possible for facilities for white and black people to be separate but equal.
Undoubtedly, capitalism plays and continues to play a huge role in the development of social and class divisions in America. Individuals such as Ella Myers, J. Phillip Thompson, and Michael Dawson agree that capitalism was inextricably linked to class formation, the emergence of a separate white and black proletariat and segregation of labor markets (Liu, 349). W. E. Dubois argued that the white proletariat benefited from psychic wage and the antiblackness of the capitalist social order. Du bois’ argued that racial capitalism gave a limited democracy for white workers that were white. He posited that there are both irrational and rational aspects of white supremacy and both aspects can cause violence against black bodies. This is enough evidence that during the Jim Crow era, the relationship of people of color towards capitalism was of exploitation and property expropriation and relations.
Without a doubt, gender played an important role in white supremacy and class segregation in early America. This is because white women have been a part of the notion of white supremacy from the beginning. White women have made investments into white supremacy for a long time and they invest in this notion more than the country itself. This points to their hand in slavery economy. Although white women are viewed by historians as being bystanders to slavery brutalities, they were rather active participants. Prior to the civil war, white women had little political and economic power with the exception they could buy and sell slaves (Feagin, Hernan and Pinar 16). They used slavery as a way of increasing their wealth which was not possible to transfer to their husbands in marriage. In essence, slavery provided white women with autonomy, agency, and freedom they could not have without it, which is why they were deeply invested. Worth noting as white women never gave up on white supremacy, a matter of fact, they doubled down.
In most cases, white supremacy and racial and class divisions tend to benefit one group over the other and in most cases, white people tend to be favored than their colored counterparts. By definition, white supremacy is meant to favor white races as they are viewed as being superior to all other races. Worth noting, that white people do not have to be white supremacists to benefit from white supremacy ideologies, but yet it still shapes American society.
Bateman, David A., Ira Katznelson, and John S. Lapinski. Southern nation: Congress and white supremacy after reconstruction. Vol. 158. Princeton University Press, 2018.
Feagin, Joe R., Hernan Vera, and Pinar Batur. White racism: The basics. Routledge, 2020.
Liu, William Ming. “White male power and privilege: The relationship between White supremacy and social class.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 64.4 (2017): 349.
M. Beliso‐De Jesús, Aisha, and Jemima Pierre. “Anthropology of white supremacy.” American anthropologist 122.1 (2020): 65-75.
Roediger, David R. “The wages of whiteness: Race and the making of the American working class.” Class: The Anthology (2017): 41-55.
The connection between food, family, friends and community
In the daily normal life, it is important to observe proper eating and food preparation methods in order to keep fit, maintain good health by avoiding those illnesses caused by poor feeding habits. This is made more necessary when one has an eating disorder that prompts him or her to observe particular eating as well as dietary habits. When an individual suffers from an eating disorder in it is important to alert family and friends in order for them to provide support. This is important as the kind of therapy provided by the family is the best. The family is also an important unit in making decisions and choices about food as they are the ones who observe and sustain any changes made on the diet.
Observation of proper eating habits normally reflects an individual who is careful and concerned about his well being to the society hence reliable and independent. In the case of an eating disorder, the individual on the other hand should ensure that they observe the correct eating habits. This is because the family and friends involved care and are concerned. Therefore when a character looks after him properly by eating and preparing the right kinds of food it makes them less worried about him hence he becomes more acceptable in the society. They also consequently contribute more to help solve the problem (Voelker, 5).
This can also be depicted in situations of grief and loss whereby the use of the right kind of foods result to the reduction of stress as well as tiredness making one stronger. This gives the family and friends the notion that the person can look after his physical being well and consequently the emotional status (Helpguide, 2).
According to Marian in (Atwood, 338), there is a strong connection between food, family, friends and the community as a whole. This is because it acts as a bond between an individual and the society as well as other specific people such as her boyfriend in the story. The choice of food can be at times determined by certain social determinants which include family, peers and cultural background. Food plays an important role in the society as it symbolizes oneness as in the case of cultural and religious aspects. When these are observed they bring about a sense of belonging to a particular community. Certain kinds of food also illustrate specific festivities observed by various cultures during which time people come together to celebrate. This brings about a feeling of socialism and interaction between people.
It can as well be used as a sign of welcome. This is portrayed by (Chang, 7) whereby Mr. Rhee offers Tom three grapes at no charge when they first meet at the grocery. On the other hand, it signifies unity as in the case of workmates where Tom and his employers join to share meal at lunch time (13).
The degree of importance of food as well is depicted in (Esquivel, 147) where it is compared to one not performing an activity that he loves so dearly.
Although the preparation of food may at times be tiring, it is important to do it the right way so as to feel connected to the intended society.
In conclusion, it is important that a character follows the correct eating habits and food preparation methods according to his society as a sign of respect and discipline towards the set rules. This brings about acceptance and incorporation as well.
Atwood, M. The edible Woman. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1999: p.338
Chang, L. The Fruit ‘n Food. Washington: Black Heron, 2006: p.147
Esquivel, L. Like Water for Chocolate. New York: Anchor Books, 1994: pp. 7-13
Helpguide. “Coping with Grief and Loss.” 2001. Helpguide.
<http://www.helpguide.org/mental/grief_loss.htm>. Accessed 14 April 2011: par. 2
Voelker, M. “How to Tell Friends and Family about an Eating Disorder.” 1999. eHow family.<http://www.ehow.com/how_4615935_tell-friends-family-eating-disorder.html>.Accessed 14 April 2011: par. 5
The conflict of whether to legalize Marijuana or not
In today’s world there has grown a new conflict. The conflict of whether or not to legalize or not to legalize light drugs such as Marijuana and the likes. This is a controversial topic every time it is set on stage and as such we seek to find out what are the repercussions of legalizing such drugs.
Harry Anslinger , the United States first drug Czar (1930-1962) seemed to create an interesting case against the now outlawed drug, Marijuana. According to Mr. Anslinger’s findings he stated that marijuana made women and men do demonic things. It made women love black men. This was all wrong but since he was able to build a case against it and soon became outlawed. Is this reason true? No.
One of the pros of legalizing such drugs is that such drugs seek to help people who have no alternative medicine for their ailments. According to WebMD marijuana can be described by doctors to treat or alleviate the ailments arising from muscle spasms, Nausea arising from Cancer Chemotherapy as well as a solution to loss of appetite. These among many other problems have been known to be solved by these drugs thus some states have even allowed the use of such light drugs to enable cure diseases if not reduce the pain they bring. The FDA too have approved THC, a key ingredient in Marijuana, in the treatment of nausea and improving of appetite.
The cons however of using marijuana among other light drug is that they cause dependency. As most psychoactive drugs tend to be they cause dependency on them after some time of them being used. This makes it hard to carry out daily functions without using them and this is wrong. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse approximately 9 percent of marijuana users go on to become addicted to it with those using marijuana daily at 25-30 percent. These numbers show a rising number of people who can no longer carry out their functions without using marijuana and this is a con by itself.
Another merit given to the legalization of light drugs such as marijuana is that they will bring forth revenue to the government. In the economy agriculture too doesn’t bring revenue to the government as well as to its people. As an economic resource plants are used to bring in money for the average American and as such support livelihood. By growth of this drug there is a possibility of the government gaining plenty of revenue from this. According to the documentary How to make money selling drugs by Adrian Grenier Marijuana is the leading cash crop if it were to be legalized beating crops such as tea and sisal close to 4 times the revenue they bring back to the American economy. This goes to show how much it would change not just the medical landscape of the United States but the economic landscape too.
Among the cons of legalizing such drugs is that this could bring forth a leeway to promoting other drugs that could be more harmful that these light scale drugs. Drugs such as cocaine are more dangerous than these light drugs and as such should be made illegal for as long as it can be done. Cocaine is classified as a schedule II drug according to Controlled Substances Act. This thus draws the lines as to why some of these drugs should not be allowed. Such a drug is more dangerous and thus the classification is differently placed. If one of the light drugs are legalized this will create a leeway for other drugs to be legalized and this is not right. Moreover peddlers and dealers of these drugs will sell to anyone who buys these drugs regardless of the age and this too is unethical. This thus will even destroy the lives of the young ones in the society. According to the site Legalizationofmarijuana.com students say it is easier to gain access to drugs more than alcohol and tobacco. This thus shows why such drugs should not be legalized.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Cooke, M. (Director). (2013). How to make money selling drugs [Motion Picture].
Drug Facts: Marijuana. (2014, January). Retrieved from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
Harding, A. (2013, November 4). Medical Marijuana. Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/features/medical-marijuana-uses
Pros & Cons of Legalizing Marijuana . (2014). Retrieved from legalizationofmarijuana.com: http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/pros-and-cons-of-marijuana.html
BIBLIOGRAPHY Cooke, M. (Director). (2013). How to make money selling drugs [Motion Picture].
Drug Facts: Marijuana. (2014, January). Retrieved from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
Harding, A. (2013, November 4). Medical Marijuana. Retrieved from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/features/medical-marijuana-uses
Pros & Cons of Legalizing Marijuana . (2014). Retrieved from legalizationofmarijuana.com: http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/pros-and-cons-of-marijuana.html
KENYATTA UNIVERSITY (MAIN CAMPUS)
SCHOOL: OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT: OF EDUCATION MANAGEMENT, POLICY & CURRICULUM STUDIES
NAME: FRED OWILI OWINO
TASK: cat one;
UNIT NAME: planning education to meet societal needs
LECTURER: DR KIRANGA GATIMU.
SUBMITTED ON: 17TH /03/2015.
About three decade ago RUSCO, GC wrote a book entitled, “The conditions for success in educational planning.” In what ways would you disagree/agree with a book written more than three decades ago? Give persuasive reasons for your position using examples from Kenya.
Planning is a rational process of preparing a set of decisions for future action. Educational planning is therefore the application of rational and systematic analysis to the process of educational development with the aim of making education more effective and efficient in responding to the needs and goals of individual and society. I would like to disagree with RUSCO, in his book conditions for success in educational planning, in that this book was written long time ago and by now a lot of changes has occurred on educational planning. These conditions stressed may be necessary or sufficient or both in that there may be conditions, no one of which is sufficient to produce the event, but all of which are necessary. There may be a condition sufficient to produce the event, although this condition may not be itself necessary because some other condition(s) may also be sufficient. Finally, there may be a single condition which alone is necessary and sufficient to produce the event.
He first highlights, legal, staffing and technical conditions are as the necessary conditions for successful educational planning. Thus, he finds recurrent concern with the legal bases which define the scope of educational planning and the institutional format for planning; the recruitment, training and deployment of educational planners; and the technical sophistication displayed by planners in collecting, analyzing and using data and in designing and utilizing educational models. Although the specific legal means by which educational planning is initiated and its institutionalized framework established varies somehow from country to country, there has been widespread agreement that educational planning requires a fairly specific legal framework. Such a framework usually includes the legal functions of the planning agency, its relations with other educational authorities and with other planning authorities, and its specific form. He said that the staffing of the planning officers though it was a seasonal variation in the number and kinds of planners employed should proceed relatively well as the government also keeps changing. He therefore concludes on the challenges of planning in regard to financing the whole process. The problem of the recruitment, training and deployment of educational planners, while still not totally resolved, has become increasingly amenable to a pragmatic solution. No longer does the problem seem to be one which requires some prior agreement on the definition of the ‘educational planner’. Rather, most people now agree that a variety of skills are necessary for planning. The need for demographers, statisticians, economists, sociologists and experts in all levels and kinds of education has been agreed upon if not everywhere met. In the last condition RUSCO brings in the element of technical conditions, that Much of the attention given to educational planning has been directed at improving the techniques of planning, ranging from better use of existing statistics to the application of complex models of linkages between education and national development. survey of the legal, staffing and technical conditions conventionally associated with educational planning suggests that such conditions are not sufficient to ensure success in educational planning.
He said that the success in educational planning does not fully depend on only those factors but also must be able to look at the constraints of education planning such as political interference and administrative factors that tries to hinder development in educational planning.
These arguments are rather far much backdated having seen especially greater development in educational planning. That there are a lot of factors to consider in developing strategies to cater for success which are the policy for planning. The first four of which deal with policy making, the fifth with planning and sixth and seventh with policy adjustment:
(i) Analysis of the existing situation.
(ii) The generation of policy options.
(iii) Evaluation of policy options.
(iv) Making the policy decision.
(v) Planning of policy implementation.
(vi) Policy impact assessment.
(vii) Subsequent policy cycles.
In the present state of Kenya a number of policies have been put in place to outlaw the RUSCOS ideas which are majorly outdated, the government in conjunction with UNESCO has brought out clear guidelines in making sure that planning for education is a success. Some of this we see in the millennium goals of education, the constitution of Kenya 2010 and even the UNESCO journal guidelines. That the current situation needs a clear guideline on the seven policies for educational planning. The conceptual framework for policy analysis and its application to the four exemplary cases vividly indicate that education planning cannot be purely technical or linear. It deals with an educational enterprise that is not characterized by unambiguous issues, clearly defined objectives, undisputed causal relationships, predictable rationalities and rational decision-makers. Education policy planning, as such, is by necessity a series of untidy and overlapping episodes in which a variety of people and organizations with diversified perspectives are actively involved in the processes through which issues are analyzed and policies are generated, implemented, assessed and adjusted or redesigned. Education planners thus need a methodological approach, to capture the intricacies of both policies and processes, to give deliberate attention to every element of the policy planning process, and to gauge the evolving dynamics of the system (flow, procedure, form, and interaction among interest groups).A conceptual frame work is sometimes followed to the later in Kenya but then at times most of the decisions made in planning of education are done by the politicians, this interference which always leaves the planners with o decisions but to work out ways of helping implement them.eg the laptop project and the free primary and secondary day school.
COPARE AND CONTRUST the claim by Michal Hopkins that The manpower forecasting debate was carried out vigorously in the 1970s and 1980s but appeared to end with the notion that all forecasting techniques that purported to assess manpower requirements in the future were dubious and that the future lay with labour market analysis and labour market signaling. In general, the monograph disputes the first notion but agrees that the, often over-simplified and non-flexible forecasting models of the past, should be supplemented with better data and improved labour market analysis.
Man power approach method was preferred by economists in the 1950s and 1960s Based on the argument that Economic growth is the mainspring of a nation’s overall development -thus should be the prime consideration in allocating scarce resources. Economic growth requires not only physical resources but also human resources to organize and use them.The focus of this approach is to forecast the manpower needs of the economy. It stresses on output from the educational system to meet the man-power needs at some future date. Manpower planning is based on the attempt to forecast the future demand for educated manpower Given the length of time taken to produce educated professional people, such forecasts may have to be made for some years e.g. fifteen years in the case of scientists, engineers, or medical doctors. There was a dubious discussion between 1970s and 1980s which was very vigorous, the findings shifted goals to labour market analysis. That manpower approach gives educational planner a limited guidance on what can actually be achieved in every level of education e.g. primary education, secondary education, etc. The approach says nothing about primary education, which is not considered to be work connected. It suggests the curbing of the expansion of primary education until the nation is rich enough to expand it. It focuses more attention on the cream of education that will contribute to manpower development in the society. It focuses on manpower needs mostly in the urban employment. It does not focus on semi-skilled and unskilled workers in the cities and vast majority of workers that live in rural areas. (Over production of engineers’ vs. masons).It relies on employment classifications and manpower ratios such engineers to technicians; doctors to nurses etc from industrialized countries or economy. This does not fit into the realities of less developed countries of Africa. It is therefore impossible to make reliable fore-cast of manpower requirements far enough ahead of time because of economic, technological, political and other uncertainties which may occur. This Approach has largely been applied at the level of persons with higher education and has tended to ignore those with lower levels of education, i.e. the great majority of workers; Limits itself to headcounts and ignores the effects of movements in wages and other prices; largely makes use of employment data relating to the public sector and/or to large private firms, whereas in developing countries the majority of workers are liable to be in small firms and/or in the informal sector; It is based on the historical relationship between output and labour, which is then extrapolated forward decades ahead; It is gender insensitive Man-power & women power
Labour market analysis is an approach/methodology that presents a major shift from the manpower planning approach. Manpower planning focuses on skilled and formal labour only and is gender biased (woman power, manpower),
Labour market analysis categorizes labour employed and unemployed, skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled, formal and informal, male and female. The basis of policy analysis lies in the recognition of the inability of human beings to anticipate future developments accurately. E.g. the conceptual problems in the manpower approach it that it implies that the main purpose of education is employment. But education encompasses a wider perspective of producing a human person who would be able to play a meaningful role in society. The labour market is a generalized concept representing the interaction between:
the supply (number of persons available for work) &
the demand (number of jobs available) and
the wage rate effects of education/output, outcome
The keyword “planning” is out “policy” and “analysis” has become keywords. Policy has more modest, short-term affectation than planning. Labour market analysts constantly adjust short and medium term analyses to reflect changing conditions while keeping the long-term in mind. The horizon of the manpower planner is long, sometimes as long as twenty years. The labor market analyst has a much shorter horizon. Manpower planning makes unrealistic estimates/forecasts. It is difficult to make reliable forecasts of manpower requirements for a long period of time.
Society is dynamic and political, economic, social and technological changes can take place any time. A significant focus of labor market analyses is the concern for poverty and equity rather than strictly production efficiency. (How much you produce given certain inputs)
In labour market analysis efficiency is no longer the only criterion of social action rather equity and poverty considerations are taken into account. It is therefore concerned with correcting present imbalances in the labor market and in reassessing the situation periodically in order to take additional corrective action as necessary. Hence Michal Hopkins that the manpower forecasting debate was carried out vigorously in the 1970s and the 1980s, making the labour market analysis most suitable approach to use. The manpower planning school stresses labour market research and labour market
Signaling as ‘the’ alternative to manpower forecasting. There is no objection to the need for alternative techniques but, as also argued, there is a need to perform, and perfect, forecasting to provide a future vision to assist in the assessment of training and educational needs. The labour market signaling chapter showed that even with relatively detailed surveys, the identification of mismatches on the labour market and future training needs is not straightforward. The data collected in the surveys would help to calibrate some.
Caillods, F. 1991. Educational planning for the year 2000. IIEP Contributions No. 4. Paris: UNESCO/International Institute for Educational Planning.
G. C. Ruscoe 1969.The Conditions for Success in Educational Planning. UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning
Hallak, J. 1991. Educational planning: reflecting on the past and its prospects for the future. IEP Contributions No. 2. Paris: UNESCO/International Institute for Educational Planning.
LYONS, R. F. (ed.). Problems and strategies of educational planning: lessons from Latin America. Paris, Unesco/IIEP, 1965, 117 p., tables.
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