Study and design of Systems that support Decision Making in Organizations

Study and design of Systems that support Decision Making in Organizations

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Table of Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u Report on Organization and Decision Making Process PAGEREF _Toc374471713 h 3Summary of the organization PAGEREF _Toc374471714 h 3Management structure PAGEREF _Toc374471715 h 3Decision making process PAGEREF _Toc374471716 h 4Business value of decisions and impact of good and bad decisions on organizations PAGEREF _Toc374471717 h 6Study of Systems for supporting decision making PAGEREF _Toc374471718 h 7The effectiveness of DSS technology PAGEREF _Toc374471719 h 8Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc374471720 h 9References PAGEREF _Toc374471721 h 10

Report on Organization and Decision Making ProcessSummary of the organization

Saudi Aramco is an overseas company that is owned by the government of Saudi Arabia and its head quarters are in Dhahran. It is a global leader in the business of oil and gas and has joint ventures and affiliates in the republic of Singapore, China, Japan, Netherlands, Korea, United Arabs Emirates, among many others. To be able to do business well in all these nations with different cultures, the company had to familiarize itself with the culture in order to relate well with the native business partners and affiliates. .Culture affects behaviors, attitudes, values, norms and character of a person. Strategic measures have had to be undertaken by the company to understand all that to create a successful business relation. This has Marjory included appreciating that people in Singapore, Korea and Saudi are of different cultures and allowing room for the differences (Aramco Overseas, 2011).

Management structure

In order to effectively manage decision making process at Saudi Aramco Company, the following strategies were of great use to the company management team. To start with, the management should plan an effective marketing strategy for their services. The focus on the marketing is implementation of an effective marketing strategy that will aid in gaining a large market share of the products, and increasing the prices of the products. This will involve creation of the brand name of the company that will aid in adding value to the company. In addition, effective promotion methods adoption will take place to create customer awareness and enhance development of customer loyalty at the same time. The accompaniment of this is increase in the sales budget for the company.

There is an anticipation of demand increase of the sensors because of advertising and brand name creation. Therefore, price increment of the product will take place at the discovery of the demand increase. This is because demand and price have a linear correlation. That is, as the demand increases, the prices increase. The product development department does a nice work but with no cooperation between production and marketing, the company will be running at a loss. According to Lewis & Slack, management of a big organization entails linking all the department and ensuring they have good relationship in order to have good flow of materials from production to marketing (2003). Manager today has to make crucial decisions regarding business activities every single day. The greatest challenge is that the business environment is rapidly growing and highly aggressive. One finds that whatever business strategy that worked yesterday effectively is no longer relevant today.

Decision making processDecision making process forms one of the oldest concepts that started during the creation of mankind. All decision making processes take into account planned steps based on extensive reasoning. In the earlier days, decision making involved reading series marks and interpreting dreams. According to Anderson, Sweeney & Williams (2000), groups use decision making process in generating global levels of agreement. People should have planned approaches while making a decision in order to avoid regrets. Irrespective of the nature of the decision made, the parties involved must anticipate the potential impacts of the decision, and the ability to make it serve the intended purpose.

Basic decision making process composes of a person’s behavior and views on the prevailing situation. The person’s upbringing, emotional state, objectives and interests combined with a person’s instincts determines the order of decision making process. While making a decision, one should identify and define the most challenging parts (Hardman, 2009). In addition, getting into the main source of challenges draws attention and makes decision making easier. Identifying the obstacles in decision making assists the individual identify more options and methods necessary for resolving the issue at hand. According to Roth & Mullen (2002), the previous decisions made by a person bases the style of decision making developed. Moreover, a person should adapt a technique that contributes to quality decision making.

The following basic guidelines are necessary in decision making process. First, before making a decision a person must come up with a number of options that bear no relationship. Making the right choice entails assessing knowledge and coming up with a course of action, but not inevitably a decent choice amid right and wrong. When none of the suggested choices is ideal, a person makes typical decision depending on best existing options (McLucas, 2003). On the other hand, one should avoid making decisions in a hurry or out of hunger, especially those holding leadership positions. However, people in power need taking faster actions on less critical but more cautious in determining a given strategy. In addition, one should avoid making a fundamental decision based on a minor idea with expectations to manage a bigger picture.

Forecasting the upcoming events is difficult, no matter how smart a person is in decision making, it cannot be proven to be accurate or wrong. Active leaders and decision creators go through the decision making progress in a systematic and comprehensive approach, but should on no reason think they need to apply for forgiveness if a considered, well-thought-out, and strategic decision does not apply as well as anticipated (Allwood, 2001). In basic decision making, an individual should be rational facing complex matters in order to solve a problem. Moreover, creativity plays a significant role in adding to the complexity of the decision and increasing the level of understanding of the problem. In addition, a balanced judgment assists in the evaluation of a complex situation by reducing into a single best option (Anderson, 2002).

Business value of decisions and impact of good and bad decisions on organizations

With the present competitive global business, organizations should strategize on coming up with effective decisions over their operations. Most organizations look for better ways of increasing the effectiveness and productivity of employees and attracting more customers. Staff training forms one of the methods implemented by organizations to manage diversity in workplace. According to Aguinis & Kraiger (2009), employee training on cultural diversity is of great benefit to an organization because it increases the relationship between employees in an organization. In addition, effective training programs make it easier for human resource managers to control employees in an organization with minimum supervision. Organizations that include employee training programs in their schedule always record high productivity compared to organizations that ignore employee training programs.

Saudi should offer training programs for its employees in order to increase its productivity and compete well in the global markets. The increasing need for employee training in Saudi could be traced to many demands, which include the maintenance of superiority in the global marketplace, increased productivity, and enhancing employees’ skills and knowledge. Training would act as one of the most pervasive methods for communicating organizational goals across different cultures working in the company. In addition, the human resource management should understand the potential impact and costs associated with employee training programs in order to come up with an effective design and evaluation features. According to Chen (2005), training follows two main steps. These are identification of stakeholder needs and turning decision into action. Saudi should place a tight surveillance system that tracks the behavior of employees while under training programs in order to monitor their actions.

Study of Systems for supporting decision makingThere is a high dependency rate on computers in the modern society , the probability of causing serious damage to a nation by interfering with communication systems through technology vulnerabilities is becoming a real threat, leading to increased risks (Inteco, 2007). DSS is an effective technology that can improve decision making process in an organization. The following technology is prone to many attacks from the main server requiring a qualified person to install and run. Application server attacks paralyze the daily activities, since most of country’s population depends on the internet in carrying out their daily duties, causing many delays in almost all sectors including businesses, transport, cabinet proceedings, education, and the media. The main aim of the attack is to interfere with the technical operations of the internet servers in the country, which continues for weeks before the Information Technologists found the solution. The amount of impact caused by the attack makes an organization lose many resource.

On the other hand, communication is a major aspect in all business decision making processes. Perfect communication between the group decision makers results into a perfect strategic plan that makes an organization progress in front of the competitors. Communication is very essential in an organization in order for various teams to know the location of their competitors. By using the DSS software, Saudi will be in a position to make effective decision making strategies and sell their products to many people. The tool gives room for groups to create awareness between different sectors and communicate on the necessary recommendations that bring proper understanding among groups (Steward, Davies & Dick, 1999).

The effectiveness of DSS technologyThe advancing technology controls the world we live in today. Most of these technological advancements make lives easier and secure. With the availability of large-scale computer networks and the increasing concern for identity theft cases, the use of an appropriate network and targeted device surveillance has become of significant importance. The desired personal identification systems should possess the ability to point out an individual accurately, rapidly, reliably, without invading privacy rights, in a cost effective, user friendly and manage to cope with the changing technology. The following discussion will focus on the network and targeted device surveillance. Under this surveillance system, various gadgets as mentioned above are used to assist in locating a person or device.

The DSS technology has ever since replaced human interference in organization decision making strategies The algorithms used by this system allows an organization come up with effective processes to enable employees and the management talk the same language. The DSS technology enables achievement of core technology used in the surveillance of communications between citizens. The following program allows an extensive monitoring and analysis of data packages sent via the internet. In addition, internet providers deploy DSS within the infrastructure they operate in that assist in scanning the traffic on their servers. Through this they achieve the following:

Network management

Network stability

Manipulation of websites for efficient transmission

Provides government with surveillance and censoring infrastructures

Blocking of channels that promote unlawful messages

Profiling for targeted advertising

Sample prototype of a simple dashboard in Excel using Pivot tables and Charts

Table 1: sales data for oil to different countries in 2012

Customer Name Customer Country Sales Channel Units Sold (000,000) liters Date Sold

Candice Levy Congo Direct 117 2012-08-09

Xerxes Smith Panama Retail 73 2012-07-06

Levi Douglas Tanzania Retail 205 2012-08-18

Uriel Benton South Africa Online 14 2012-08-05

Celeste Pugh Gabon Direct 170 2012-08-11

Vance Campos Syrian Arab Republic Retail 129 2012-07-11

Latifah Wall Guadeloupe Retail 82 2012-07-12

Jane Hernandez Macedonia Online 116 2012-06-03

Wanda Garza Kyrgyzstan Retail 67 2012-06-07

Athena Fitzpatrick Reunion Direct 125 2012-07-27

Anjolie Hicks Turks and Caicos Islands Retail 71 2012-07-31

Isaac Cooper Netherlands Antilles Online 22 2012-08-13

Asher Weber Macedonia Online 153 2012-08-22

Ethan Gregory Tuvalu Online 141 2012-07-04

Hayes Rollins Nepal Online 65 2012-08-01

MacKenzie Moss Oman Online 157 2012-07-12

Aphrodite Brennan Malawi Online 197 2012-08-24

Angela Wise Moldova Retail 10 2012-06-21

James Spencer Burkina Faso Retail 30 2012-06-03

Adria Kaufman Bouvet Island Retail 134 2012-07-13

Amir Alexander Liberia Retail 100 2012-08-21

Lani Sweet Vanuatu Online 142 2012-06-24

Clark Weaver Palau Online 135 2012-06-17

Leonard Cardenas Madagascar Retail 9 2012-07-24

Renee Padilla Yemen Online 69 2012-08-08

Joy Vazquez Korea Online 189 2012-06-17

Ingrid Bush Montserrat Online 141 2012-06-14

Deacon Craig Mongolia Online 166 2012-08-02

Rama Goodwin Tunisia Direct 170 2012-08-11

Jelani OdonnellAlbania Online 199 2012-08-18

Liberty McbrideFiji Retail 73 2012-07-03

Britanni Bender Angola Online 117 2012-06-30

Samuel Ayala Brazil Online 160 2012-06-22

Shad Delacruz Solomon Islands Retail 45 2012-06-09

India Gilbert Denmark Retail 37 2012-06-08

Ursula McconnellHungary Online 135 2012-08-12

Ryder Conner Virgin Islands, British Online 12 2012-07-28

Germaine Kidd Niger Online 104 2012-06-27

Rhona Clarke Palestinian Territory, Occupied Online 167 2012-07-07

Maxwell Parker Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Retail 108 2012-07-19

Isaac Wolf Panama Online 105 2012-07-27

Guinevere Key Colombia Direct 176 2012-08-17

Deanna Santana Solomon Islands Online 131 2012-06-01

Jared Sandoval Botswana Online 188 2012-08-26

Ima Cummings Philippines Online 93 2012-06-08

Oprah Ellis Dominican Republic Retail 113 2012-07-04

Dara Cunningham Saint Helena Online 112 2012-07-09

Buckminster Hopkins Sierra Leone Retail 201 2012-06-23

Kenyon Joyce Canada Direct 41 2012-06-17

Forrest Macdonald New Caledonia Online 18 2012-06-12

Thomas Barnes Mayotte Online 28 2012-07-06

Cruz Pacheco Palestinian Territory, Occupied Online 137 2012-07-15

Maxine Gentry Panama Online 95 2012-08-10

Anika Tillman Burkina Faso Online 109 2012-07-12

Robert Juarez Svalbard and Jan MayenOnline 137 2012-06-01

Kay Buckley Malta Retail 196 2012-07-17

Shea Cortez India Online 48 2012-07-09

Sylvester Roy Gibraltar Online 4 2012-08-03

Lance Little Croatia Retail 125 2012-06-15

Kareem Mays Holy See (Vatican City State) Online 211 2012-08-13

Arsenio Knowles Malaysia Retail 20 2012-06-10

Colby Knapp Pakistan Retail 135 2012-08-29

Noble Warner Burkina Faso Online 193 2012-08-13

Isadora McclureIndonesia Online 184 2012-06-22

Katelyn Joseph Slovenia Online 126 2012-08-21

Fletcher Jimenez Chad Online 176 2012-07-31

Keaton Wolfe French Southern Territories Online 102 2012-07-15

Melinda Cobb Uruguay Online 203 2012-07-23

Aurelia Flores United Kingdom Online 177 2012-08-04

Bevis McdonaldAmerican Samoa Retail 51 2012-08-04

Yael Carter Malaysia Retail 203 2012-07-11

Sawyer Stokes Malta Online 106 2012-08-05

Silas Battle Niue Retail 14 2012-08-17

Noble Gilbert United States Online 116 2012-08-13

Petra MckenzieMorocco Retail 7 2012-07-01

Bell Prince Guinea Retail 82 2012-07-07

George Best Western Sahara Retail 178 2012-08-12

Basil VangMoldova Retail 41 2012-07-11

Lael Gould El Salvador Retail 85 2012-07-05

Noel Key Gambia Online 77 2012-06-27

Paul Duke Puerto Rico Online 122 2012-06-28

Josiah Yates Bangladesh Retail 42 2012-08-23

Winifred Cantu Kazakhstan Online 64 2012-08-22

Devin Abbott France Retail 208 2012-08-29

Aretha Patton Bouvet Island Retail 13 2012-07-29

Nell Maddox Azerbaijan Retail 147 2012-06-28

Tad Mack Iceland Direct 163 2012-08-25

Amery Frazier Georgia Retail 126 2012-07-22

Hiroko Acevedo Burundi Retail 188 2012-06-25

Nyssa Quinn Cocos (Keeling) Islands Retail 151 2012-08-03

Iliana Porter Poland Retail 89 2012-07-07

Zahir Fields Canada Retail 168 2012-06-10

Gwendolyn MccartyMadagascar Retail 84 2012-08-03

Victoria Solis Palau Online 16 2012-06-27

Colette SargentNorfolk Island Retail 80 2012-06-21

Cyrus Whitley Denmark Online 50 2012-07-17

Joel Rivers Australia Online 41 2012-06-11

Kyra Harding Cameroon Online 19 2012-07-11

Barrett MckinneySyrian Arab Republic Retail 37 2012-06-13

Benedict Byrd Mauritania Online 184 2012-07-07

Jerry Alvarado Korea, Republic of Retail 179 2012-08-18

Lesley Aguilar Viet Nam Retail 190 2012-07-20

Mercedes Humphrey Turkey Online 47 2012-07-03

Gwendolyn Walton Cuba Retail 165 2012-07-09

Zia McmillanDenmark Retail 178 2012-06-19

Roary Dixon Saudi Arabia Online 10 2012-06-24

Emerson Beard Niue Online 150 2012-08-25

Ivor MclaughlinUnited States Minor Outlying Islands Retail 77 2012-07-02

Clark Orr Indonesia Direct 63 2012-06-29

Doris Williams Trinidad and Tobago Online 204 2012-08-15

Phillip Perkins Nigeria Online 22 2012-08-12

Maite Henson Bangladesh Retail 95 2012-07-24

Ebony Mercer Cape Verde Retail 57 2012-08-14

Brittany Burris Palau Retail 5 2012-06-30

Imogene Bradshaw Niger Online 85 2012-07-23

Eleanor Hopper Madagascar Online 43 2012-06-15

Brynne McgowanFinland Retail 157 2012-06-18

Desirae Perkins Chile Online 65 2012-08-27

Ivory Chang Tonga Direct 95 2012-07-22

Gwendolyn David Cape Verde Online 159 2012-07-22

Quintessa Levine Turkey Online 14 2012-06-16

Rosalyn Lopez Faroe Islands Retail 39 2012-07-18

Basil Bates Portugal Direct 9 2012-07-28

Adrian Alvarez Monaco Online 50 2012-06-08

Brynn Strickland Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Online 107 2012-08-15

Ashely Macdonald Macao Retail 118 2012-06-18

Michael Hart Italy Direct 39 2012-08-13

Cynthia Gilliam Russian Federation Retail 126 2012-08-02

Tanner Turner Yemen Retail 176 2012-06-27

Keefe Cooley Cayman Islands Retail 111 2012-08-14

Rooney Wynn Israel Online 71 2012-07-03

Odette Logan Malaysia Online 113 2012-08-23

Garrett May Malawi Retail 105 2012-07-31

Susan Grimes Antarctica Retail 169 2012-07-27

Katelyn Adams Guinea Retail 116 2012-06-29

Moses Huff Turkey Online 208 2012-07-10

Susan Schultz Western Sahara Direct 45 2012-07-24

Leah Golden Norway Retail 193 2012-06-19

Ina Montgomery Romania Retail 108 2012-06-05

Maia Mitchell Switzerland Direct 205 2012-07-29

Macy Romero Mozambique Online 88 2012-07-28

Molly Crane Armenia Online 46 2012-06-28

Cedric Rivera Albania Direct 73 2012-08-03

Hanna Dyer Martinique Direct 207 2012-08-05

Linda Morales Saint Lucia Retail 202 2012-07-22

Keaton Meyer Costa Rica Online 209 2012-06-11

Fatima Case Netherlands Antilles Retail 48 2012-07-31

Cyrus Peters Svalbard and Jan MayenRetail 52 2012-06-22

Cooper Brooks Hong Kong Online 202 2012-06-30

Reagan Leach Pakistan Online 138 2012-08-06

Yuri McguireSaint Pierre and Miquelon Retail 77 2012-06-27

Aaron Edwards Togo Retail 168 2012-08-24

Arden Conrad Holy See (Vatican City State) Online 114 2012-07-08

Colleen Huff Singapore Direct 170 2012-08-02

Isadora Ford Zambia Retail 116 2012-08-04

The pivot table generated will help the company management in making an effective follow-up of sales data to various countries and keep better records. In addition, these tables and charts will assist in decision making as the company determines who her frequent customers are in order to offer discountsConclusion

In conclusion, before making a decision one must think of the positive or negative influences it poses. Information Technology governance models require an aspect of strategic management in regard to the economic costs of decisions involved. Strategic planning systematically evaluates a business in an effort of defining the long-term and short-term objectives, identifying goals and locating resources necessary to achieve these strategies. Gathering information from different people assists in resolving a given issue in a quick and timelier way. In addition, basic decision making processes could develop into many problems especially when the decision maker has no originality. People must always learn to make sound decisions that are of benefit to the individual and group.

Most organizations make use of various simulation techniques required in facilitating their strategic plans taking into consideration the present business competition and the advancing technology. Business simulations are rapidly evolving, since they form the fundamental tools for developing perfect strategies that encourage growth and development in today’s business organizations. The advancement in information technology has led into many innovations that have replaced traditional approaches to strategic planning

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STEWARD, H., DAVIES, A. & DICK, B. (1999). The Johari Window and the Dark Side of

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