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Explain the reasons for the rise of partisan politics in the Early Republic (i.e., major Conflicts and concerns, development of the First Party System).

The evolution of political parties began in the 17th century due to the struggle over ratification of the federal Constitution of 1787. This was driven by the urge and need of politicians to win popular support across the republic that contributed to the evolution of the political arena that led to voter-based political parties. And due to the evolution or change in politics, Americans became innovative in formulating/creating new campaigning tactics that linked the whole public ideology/opinion with the public policy through the party (Clarke, 2020).

Lerman (2019) indicates that in the United States, political partisans started as a result of the need of the Americans to have a strong central government that would serve them efficiently as per their needs. This was driven by the political partisan of the Americans who strongly supported their parties’ policies and since they were devoted to supporting their party to the extent of confronting other political opponents. Historical researchers further indicate that partisan politics arose due to the draft of the American Constitution that allowed political leaders to form laws and make government decisions on Americans’ behalf.

The development of the second party system:

Through comparison of the platforms of the Whig and democratic parties.

The second party system comprised two main political parties across the nation that is the Democratic Party, which Andrew Jackson led, and the second party was the Whig party, which Henry Clay initiated. The origin of the second party began during the 1824 presidential election (Party, 2021). The development of the second party system in the United States was facilitated by the eighth president, who advocated for the retention of the Democratic Party as the people’s voice across the republic. The second party system in America developed due to Jackson’s determination to terminate the second bank of America. This is because, at first, Jackson did not participate in duel presidency, although he had shot political opposition in the political sector. , But with time, he was determined to crush his foes in the political arena to maintain Democratic Party as the only dominating party for the people (Shade & Shade, 1996).

However, as a result of the fight for the Democratic Party, the Whig party emerged, consisting of members of the National Republican party and all other people who were against Andrew Jackson. These two political parties dominated the United States’s political system for about twenty years. The two parties had different platforms and views; for instance, the Whig party was against and criticized Jackson and democrats and stood for the protection of national banking, tariffs, and federal aid for internal advancement. Whigs supported their ideology that the legislature should have the most power in the government, and they were proponents of social order (Shade & Shade, 1996). However, the democrats continued to have strong beliefs and support for a strong executive, giving people power. Moreover, there was a difference since democrats supported Jefferson’s ideology of an agrarian society ended by a normal man while Whigs supported industry and manufacturing in the northern states.

The Democrats and Whigs became very significant political parties in history and had some similarities since they had a common origin when Democrat-Republican ended, and politicians branched off (Shade & Shade, 1996). The two parties supported the empowerment of women and supported their movements. However, researchers indicate that the second-party system in America greatly increased American politics’ democratization. This is because the second-party system in the republic contributed to the shift toward people’s interests in the political sector by allowing many people to vote, including women. The system contributed to increased democracy across the nation since there was the organization of electoral competition between various politicians and large unified portions of the electorate across the republic. Additionally, it contributed to transforming individual preferences that became public through policy formulation and provided a peaceful mechanism for opponents in opposition to the right way (Shade & Shade, 1996).

The major movement and events that contributed to the civil war.

Civil war erupted due to a clash between the Northern and Southern states’ people and politicians over various issues. Generally, the clash was based on ideological differences in economic interests, the power of the federal government to rule the states, slavery in American society, and cultural values. However, the major movement that contributed to the civil war in America between the northern and southern was based on slavery, states’ rights, and westward expansion (Ransom, 1989). Westward expansion movement led to civil war because it carried slavery from northern to southwest territories. The issue of slavery in western was perceived to be politically driven and became a great deal of controversy in the territories (Mountjoy, 2009).

During the antebellum era/period, enslaved people were taken to the plantation. They were well treated on happy plantations and provided the security to ensure they were all safe. Based on this argument statement, enslaved people were perceived to have better treatment and lived better lives than factory workers in the Northern states. However, there was a rise of argument from abolitionists who argued that slavery was a social issue and morally evil practice that was against human rights. It harmed enslaved people and had negative impacts on society. However, the slavery defenders argued that slavery was the backbone of their economy, and the sudden end of slavery would harm the economy. Especially in the south, where reliance on slavery as their economic foundation would collapse since tobacco, rice, and cotton plantations would become less profitable due to a lack of enough labor (Mountjoy, 2009).

In the north, there were many abolitionists. At the same time, the south was known to be a pro-slavery region. The westward expansion increased sectional tension since it had economic promise and contributed to the manifest destiny. The expansion contributed to great sectional tension since each side wanted to have an extension of its ideologies extended into the west. And as a result, it led to civil war since they forced the removal of native residents from their homes to serve as enslaved people in plantations. Thus the westward expansion intensified the issues of slavery that abolitionists were against, thus contributing to the outbreak of the civil war since it also created negative political crises among the people (Mountjoy, 2009). And due to political crises, sectional tension increased based on their political ideologies differences. As a result of bloody territorial conflicts, events between the different political supporters led to civil war due to increased sectional tension and the need for revenge for their people hurt during the confrontations. Another event that contributed to the outbreak of the civil war was the political debates. The debates were held among the northerners and southerners based on slave power and significantly led to the outbreak of the civil war. This is because the supporters had different ideologies based on slavery, where one side was for abolishing slavery while the other was for slavery to improve their economy. Research indicates that the civil war emerged due to political control of the system slavery economy in the states. And due to the failure of secession debates, civil war erupted as a way of self-defense.

Moreover, court cases like Dred Scott v. Sandford led to the civil war since it increased tension between the North and South. This case led to civil war because it destroyed the elusive agreement between the free states and enslaved people, contributing to national anger. As a result of ruling, it ended in a civil war (Jackson, 2011).


Clarke, A. J. (2020). Party Sub‐Brands and American Party Factions. American Journal of Political Science, 64(3), 452-470.

Jackson, F. J. (2011). Dred Scott v. Sandford: A Prelude to the Civil War. Rich. JL & Pub. Int., 15, 377.Lerman, A. E. (2019). Good enough for government work: The public reputation crisis in America (and what we can do to fix it). University of Chicago Press.

Mountjoy, S. (2009). Manifest Destiny: westward expansion. Infobase Publishing.

Party, R. (2021). Democratic Party. Manchester.

Ransom, R. L. (1989). Conflict and compromise: the political economy of slavery, emancipation and the American Civil War. Cambridge University Press.

Shade, W. G., & Shade, W. G. (1996). Democratizing the Old Dominion: Virginia and the Second Party System, 1824-1861. University of Virginia Press.

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