The concept of reflection in nursing, Qualitative findings on student and teacher perspectives Critique

Nurse Education in Practice: The concept of reflection in nursing: Qualitative findings on student and teacher perspectives Critique





Limitations of the studies reviewed require that caution be used in the application of the findings to educational programs. As indicated above, occupational health nursing practice involves the synthesis of principles form nursing, public health, and other disciplines. However, several researchers used a task-oriented approach to identify practice elements rather than a clearly identified conceptual approach to curriculum derivation. This is not surprising given the relative newness of research in occupational health nursing.

All studies reviewed involved some form of descriptive research, with survey designs employed most frequently. One study was national in scope, one regional, two statewide, and all other locals. Excepting where total populations were used, sample selection was mostly purposive or by convenience, and sample size often were small. In all but one study, instruments were developed by the authors. Contents validity either was explicitly or implied; however, no other types of validity or reliability were reported. Lack of instrument testing may have been due to the general lack of research conducted in occupational health nursing prior. Data were analysis mostly using descriptive and nonparametric statistical techniques, which is consistent with the type and state of the research.

A significant role of a research that is well demonstrated in this research is the incorporation of ethical approval and ensuring the wellbeing of participants. This based on the research was achieved by going through a process of formal ethical approval. However, the non-predictive nature of action research means that it is also important to mutually agree an ethical code of practice at the start of the study. Winter (2001) highlights various ethical code issues and principles of procedure. First they emphasize the importance of maintaining a professional relationship, guided by a duty of care and respect for the individual; regardless of gender, age, and ethnicity along with a respect for cultural diversity and individual dignity, as well as protection from harm. This last principle is part of any special researcher’s role, in addition to the need for informed consent and honesty. However, Winter (2001) suggest that there are other principles of procedure that should be followed in action research.

Having an ethical code of practice does not negate the additional need for research governance and formal ethical approval for action research. However, these quality processes are made all the more complex by the action researcher not being able to say in advance what the research will do. Action research proposals need to be written in collaboration with participants, often as co-applicants, with an inbuilt degree of flexibility. The action researcher should indicate the likely course of the study, specify the need for flexibility and enter into open and ongoing dialogue with ethical committees to seek approval for emergent changes in design.

Credibility of the finding

The study takes both qualitative and quantitative approaches to achieve the desired objectives. The qualitative approach will help in the examination of the current demographic factors exploring the various factors that act as drivers to the effectiveness and satisfaction level of the social workers (Jeon, 2004). This method is appropriate because initially the research aims to examine the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the beneficiaries bearing in mind the diverse nature of the contemporary social workers but using a qualitative approach exploring the perceptions that drive the formulation and adoption of the management strategies.

The literature examines original investigations, other literature reviews, peer reviewed academic literature, research databases, reviews, journals in various academic fields and original manuscripts that relate to beneficiary satisfaction (Charmaz, 2006). One of the most recent studies, which directly involved investigation of customer satisfaction of user is the study carried out by SSP (2006). Since a search in the research databases produces a big number of results, the reviewed literature sources are picked on a random- sample strategy (Camilla, 2003).

Reliability and validityThe performance of any research tool is usually measured in terms of reliability, validity and sensitivity as well as specificity. These concepts will also be applied in this study by the researcher to ascertain the reliability of the study. According to Waliman (2005), reliability is the ability by which a study is able to produce results that are consistent and stable over a given period of time and given similar circumstances (Waliman, 2005). Various types of validities exist that include internal validity and external validity. Internal validity relates to the correlation between items when measured on a scale. Whenever a study provides the same results after the application of two different measures, the outcome is said to be equivalent.

Validity is the extent to which a given instrument is designed to measure. The validity of a study can vary in different samples used. In one situation, a study can be valid while in other scenarios, it may not. The validity of a study is measured by what the study claims to and the availability of logical errors in the conclusions drawn from the study. According to Crotty (2003), internal validity is the extent to which it is possible to make independent reference from the findings of a study especially if the independent variable influences the dependent variable. On the other hand, external validity is the general application of the findings of a study to other settings.

The measurement of the theoretical construct of a study is measured using construct validity while convergent validity makes comparison between the scores that are obtained from different instruments that are used in the study. Unlike convergent validity, divergent validity compares the instruments used in the study that measure concepts that are opposite. Given the above validity and reliability, the study is valid ad reliable for use by any person or strategic department (Waliman, 2005)

Internal validity of the research is low as with most field research. A number of factors are likely to impact on the amount and type of collected data. Some of the factors that have been identified to cause an impact on the internal validity of a study include the following. The variety of information collected from various people and sources might contradict. For instance, in one study, the researchers found out that the management had created different environments for the social workers (Jeon, 2004).

Another notable threat to the research validity is the method of selection that might be (though the probability cannot be determined) biased. Since participation in the study by respondents is voluntary, selection bias is likely to affect the internal validity. Instrumentation is also identified by the scholars as another factor that affects internal validity. In this threat, any change or alterations made in the measurement of variables or changes in the techniques of observation may justify changes in the measurement that is ultimately obtained. This is evident from various researches (Camilla, 2003). A good way of dealing with this threat is to ensure consistency of the data analysis method used and techniques applied by the authors.

Research approach

This research will take a deductive approach that will entail the researcher working from a known hypothesis that teamwork affects positively the employee performance in the strategic management department in ADP. Thus, the study takes a top down approach as compared to the inductive approach that takes an up down strategy.

A study that is quantitative usually makes an emphasis on transforming the data quantities and the models of statistics for purposes of measuring and analyzing data. The research topics in which researchers use this method have clear idea of what they look or search for and tools like questionnaires are used to collect data. Quantitative approach has its focus on the preciseness of data that is seen in terms of measuring data. Quantitative approach to a research involves using statistical data analyses to obtain information about the study simply because the approach is based on measuring the quantity or amount.

To realize the use deductive approach, quantitative tools of collective and analyzing data like questionnaires and interviews were used. Quantitative tools were preferred as compared to qualitative tools because they enable the researcher to come up with facts like a hypothesis that teamwork can improve the performance of employees in the strategic department of ADP and thereafter testing and confirming the hypothesis. This is unlike qualitative tools that first come up with an abstract idea that is followed by creation of theories and concepts about the idea. Lastly, data in quantitative research is hard and reliable as compared with qualitative research where data that is just rich and deep (Quinn, 2002).

In addition to the above, this study takes a positivism kind of philosophy towards the impact of teamwork o employee performance in strategic management department in ADP. A positivism approach will make us understand more the impact of teamwork on not only employees but also overall organization. On the contrary, a qualitative approach to research makes the researcher to switch his focus to gaining a better understanding of the problem of the research by giving detailed information about the main theme of the study topic. The major goal of a qualitative study is to have a complete and detailed description of the study phenomenon by applying reasoning. Qualitative research involves the use of interviews and observations to collect data and there are no formal measurements involved. Qualitative approach makes the researcher understand the phenomenon under study and be in a position to describe the whole situation as it is. The approach consists of descriptions, quotes, observations, and excerpts from books and other documents (Quinn, p. 2002, p. 308).


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Williams & Wilkins. Pp. 45-56.

Charmaz, K., 2006, Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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Munhall, L., 2007, Nursing research: a qualitative perspective. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

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