Understanding Specific Needs in Health and Social Care

Specific Needs in Health and Social Care

Case Overview

The family of Mr. Holland Park was searching for a home care that would serve the needs of their grandfather. They needed a home that would offer impeccable services that would ensure the comfort of their relative. Mr. Holland Park is suffering from several complications, including dementia, hearing problems, challenging behaviour and visual problems. His family chose my practice after recommendation from friends and other family members. The reason for their choice is the immaculate outcomes of this nursing home in that it is versatile and works to deliver on individual needs.


The emphasis on special and specific needs in social care has risen in recent decades owing to the recognition of its importance. In addition, the focus on economic activities implies that family members have reduced time to care for their relatives who need this care. Perhaps, it is due to these needs that the nursing profession has evolved to encompass all activities related to healthcare. In truth, there is an escalation in the number of care homes in the current society as compared to the past societies. In addition, the users of these homes stress on their delivery of service meaning that for any home to stay in business, it should provide quality services. Another twist to this story is that auditors are sent periodically by the government to check the operations of these homes and any home found operating contrary to the codes of conduct required of them is shut down.

Task 1

The perceptions of health, disability, illness, and behaviour

The way people view various health issues in the society is dependent on several factors including education, socio-economic background, and even political factors. This implies that the perception of different elements such as health, behaviour, illness, and disability is different with different people. Additionally, it implies that these perceptions change over time mainly due to trends in other sectors. During the process of admitting Mr. Holland Park several concepts related to

Analysis of the concepts of health, disability, illness, and behaviour

Different phrases, elements, and concepts in healthcare have different definitions and uses in various subsections of healthcare. This section strives to analyse and define various concepts related to special care. These concepts include


Health can be expressed as a situation where an individual is sound mentally, physically and socially as opposed to the assumption that it is the absence of disease. For instance, if Mr. Holland did not suffer from all the ailments outlined above but still had social problems some would term him healthy. However, according to this definition, Mr. Holland is unhealthy until he is in a state of complete health. This underscores the importance of care homes for people with disabilities because these homes strive to put these people in a state of complete wellbeing as defined in the paragraphs above.


Disability can be described as any mental, physical, and emotional impairment that restricts an individual from undertaking regular activities like walking, working, driving, eating, and even going on vacations. Mr. Holland has various disabilities ranging from hearing, seeing, dementia and even behavioural problems. The care home defined above caters for all these disabilities. In fact, the essence of the home is to enable these people to lead a comfortable life.


In all aspects, illness is related to both health and disability in that illness involves the state of the body just like health and disability. In essence, an illness is a state of being unhealthy in body and mind. Illnesses inhibit a person from carrying out several activities done by a healthy person. In this case, scenario Mr. Park is suffering from several illnesses, and that is the reason it becomes necessary for him to be cared for in a home.

Behaviour and behavioural issues

Behaviour can be defined as an individual’s character. It is the way an individual acts and conducts towards his or her environment. Most of the time the way someone relates to others is very important to the comfort of their lives. Behavioural issues often arise due to old age as the mental and physical health deteriorates. This is perhaps the reason Mr. Park exhibits these problems. The fact that he suffers from several illnesses implies that his behavioural problems are prevalent.

Trends in the Perceptions of Specific Needs

Over the decades, the perceptions of people from different lifestyles on disability have changed considerably. In addition, the initiatives established to cater for people with special needs have changed over time. For example, currently, there is an increment in the number of private practices in the UK as opposed to the past where people depended on public healthcare institutions. Moreover, the quality of care is stressed by individuals and the concerned government institutions not like in the past where did not give much importance. The central basis for the establishment and the growth of private practices is the deterioration of services in public healthcare institutions. Moreover, people’s attitudes towards people with special needs have changed over the years prompting increased focus on their wellbeing and comfort. Indeed, Mr. Park’s family wanted a care home that would treat him with respect and at the same time offer him impeccable services. They desired to see their relative being taken care of and living in a comfortable environment, a thing they were not able to do because of their limited capabilities and busy schedules.

The consequence of legislation, social system, society, and culture

Several laws governing the treatment of individuals with special needs exist in the UK. Perhaps the most important law in the UK relating to individuals with specific needs is the Health Act 1999, which stipulates pooling of resources and capabilities in order to enhance the quality of service. This implies that the adoption of this Act ensures that people like Mr. Park get better services than it was in the past.

The impact of culture on the services for the disabled is less compared to economic and political factors in that the current UK is modernised. The perception of people towards disability has become better than it was in the past. For instance, buildings are now constructed with devices that cater to these people. In addition, the treatment of people with special needs has changed for the better due to changing cultural perceptions.

Several initiatives have been established to cater for people with special needs. Reports suggest that the British government has increased its funding of disability benefits. Indeed, over the last decade government spending has increased to over 30 billion pounds.

Task 2

health and social care services and systems

Care needs of individuals with specific needs

Special health care needs comprise any developmental, sensory, mental, physical, behavioural, emotional, or cognitive impairment requiring specialized medical attention and care. These conditions arise due to several factors including old age, congenital factors, diseases, trauma, or environmental factors. This condition limits the individuals suffering from it from leading a normal life.

Although Mr. Park’s family knew of the goodness of the practice, they still needed to know the processes and systems that would guarantee their relative’s comfort and treatment in the facility. Most of Mr. Park’s conditions are not treatable but only manageable. This implies that the treatment plan will involve training him on ways of coping with these conditions. Moreover, Mr. Park’s behavioural issues imply that he has a problem relating to others and at the same time has tendencies of harming himself. For this reason, the treatment plan will begin with the treatment of behavioural issues. This is because the behaviour controls one’s attitude, which is needed so that the treatment can continue as planned. Although Mr. Park’s condition is related to old age, the whole process will begin with the identification of the causes of his behavioural issues. The preceding steps will include eliminating these causes and training him to better ways of dealing with his condition. Mr. Park will be made to know that being in the home does not mean that the family is forsaking him but are minding the eventual state of his health.

The process of treatment of the other disorders will only begin after the patient has been healed of the behavioural disorders. The process will continue with finding medical remedies for the visual and hearing problems. The treatment plan will include suggestions for the diet that fits his condition. As it is evident, dementia is often caused by old age; however proper diet helps to elevate some of these problems. The main aspect of the treatment will involve putting Mr. Park in a peaceful and familiar environment. This will ease his anxiety during the treatment allowing for a faster recovery.

The services available in a chosen locality

Change in heart and attitude of the UK citizens about individuals with specific needs implies that home care institutions such as my private practice have tremendous support from the community. Indeed, the UK special care institutions have augmented their services with the help of the members of the community. For instance, the people around Manchester always act as volunteers in the practice while others visit the patients to offer moral support.

This is not the only initiative that supports these individuals because the government has structured several interventions to support their cause. For instance, there are several welfares established to cater for their financial needs. One of the welfares is the disability living allowance, and the other one is the reform for incapacity benefit. For this reason, there is a combination of communal and governmental systems created to assist people like Mr. Park.

The services available in a chosen locality

There are several prejudices against people with special needs in the UK. These prejudices increase the problems that these people go through especially in urban centres. However, government intervention and that of the private sector have allowed for the improvement of their condition. Indeed, the government through its educational institutions has established nursing courses that concern itself with the care of the people with special needs. Additionally, these nursing professionals have used their knowledge to establish care homes that cater for people like Mr. Park.

Task 3

Explanation of the approaches and interventions In response to the auditor’s question, I provided him with a catalog of approaches undertaken to meet the specific needs of Mr. Holland Park. These specific needs are stated with a brief explanation as shown below:

Empowerment and autonomy approach that entails making the openings assessable for the people with disabilities. It states the social responsibility of the society. Secondly is the advocacy approach that includes an entire range of approaches and methods used to change those practices and policies, behaviours and attitudes that act as barriers to discrimination and developments against people with disabilities. Other approaches include; the self-help approach and evidence-based practices. The former consist of self-approach towards improving the situation. The latter comprises of services that continuously display the efficiency of the people.

Interventions used in this perspective are as follows:

Education interventions

Mr. Park needs relevant and specific health information. Appropriate communication between healthcare personnel and the individuals provides health information. This health linked information is of great significance.

Physical interventions

These comprise of suitable therapies and exercises for joint movements. In this kind of intervention, there is a stipulation for exterior appliances. It assists Mr. Park in sustaining the physical status and reinstating the lost functions so that he can live normal life that he used to enjoy before.

Vocational interventions

This kind of intervention aims at promoting the vocational training that is appropriate to the disability level. Once trained, Mr. Park can earn something for himself, which will assist him in living an independent life. Since this kind of training enables him to suit in a working environment, he will gain confidence for the job. Lastly, we have

Psychological interventions

Psychological intervention is significant for an individual like Mr. Park because he has a challenging behaviour. It assists him in building positive attitude towards life and hoisting his morale. This psychoanalysis assists in treating anxiety, personality changes, suicidal tendency, and depression.

The goal of these interventions and approaches is that it will help Mr. Park bring back his social, psychological and physical potential to a level that will enable him carry an independent life. This means that he will be capable of coming back to normal, which is necessary to his life and that of those around him.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention strategies For people like Mr. Holland Park, intervention strategies are of great significance. It assists them in a variety of ways to improve their current circumstances. In restoring the physical strength, physical intervention is obliging. It comprises of the suitable treatments and exercises for the joint movements. There is a stipulation of exterior appliances for this kind of intervention. Physical intervention enables Mr. Park and his ilk to restore the lost functions and sustain the physical status so that they can come back to their normal lives. They will have an opportunity to enjoy their lives as others.

Psychological intervention is necessary for physical intervention to succeed. The former will enhance Mr. Park’s morale and help him in building the affirmative attitude towards life. This psychotherapy helps in treating anxiety, personality changes, suicidal propensity and despair. The vocational and educational interventions aid patients with specific needs to get back their independence in life. In addition, it aids people to get the accurate information and knowledge about their present condition so that they can adopt the approach the self-help in making their life normal and independent.

Discussion of the potential impact of emerging developments in support for individuals with specific needs

Some of the emerging developments are certain changes to the legislation and policies from international, national and local viewpoint, technological and medical advances. Emerging development’s potential impacts include the following potential tensions similar to the risk versus independence and autonomy and service dilemmas and policies. It also includes rights versus protection of self and others, choices and preferences and remedial treatment versus alleviation of needs.

For instance, a green document that puts emphasis on the importance of social welfare by cooking healthy and good meals has been launched by the administration. This document requires information about the risk organization and estimation in grown-up social care with respect to meals cooked for them. This will aid in stabilizing the health of the vulnerable people.

Numerous external agencies run the scheme to assist the people like Mr. Holland Park and promote the well-being and health of the society. With healthy care partnership, they try to maintain and arouse the proper environment with healthy care partnership. The theories of behavioural change explain the reasons behind certain health behaviours.

The behavioural change theories explain the reasons behind certain health behaviour. These theories inspect the predictors and precursors of health behaviours. Self-efficacy and motivation are the common elements possessed by these theories. The former reflects the amount of effort made towards the change.

It is easy to achieve strategies for social and health providers. In line with this, the people with certain conditions and their respective caretakers must have knowledge and skills for effective communication between them and health and social care providers. In addition, the workers of social and health care should be able to communicate effectively with the patients and provide a solution to their questions. For people with long-term conditions, the providers should use their best expertise and knowledge to design the personalized care plans. After a thorough and a well-organized discussion with the patient, a detailed plan should be created. When designing a care plan, there should be an integrated approach by which organizations are supposed to work together in a closer manner.

Task 4

Explanation of the different concepts of challenging behaviour

Challenging behaviours are behaviours of such duration, frequency or intensity that the physical safety of an individual or other people is likely to be put in risk. It can also be defined as behaviour that is likely to result in the someone being deprived of access to ordinary community services. Simply, if a behaviour causes harm to others or limits those having from fulfilling some aspect of their lives, then it is challenging. These aspects could be showing aggressive behaviour in school or run off when they are in swimming pool. Some of the traits of an individual with challenging behaviour are displaying danger to other people, self-harming, uncooperative and temper tantrums. This condition arises because of certain brain injury, alcohol, drugs, mental or physical health, learning disabilities or physical impairment.

The effects of these behaviours are the ones that make them abusive or challenging. These behaviours can be aggressive, and these may include; spitting, screaming, verbal abuse, throwing objects, hair pulling, grabbing, pinching, hitting, biting and scratching. Those that are non-person directed include withdrawal, lack of awareness of danger, incontinence, and destruction of clothing, inappropriately sexualized behaviour, stealing, hyperactivity and damage to property. Others included self-injuries and stereotyped. The former entails eating things that are not food, grinding teeth, picking, eye poking, pulling, scratching and head banging. The latter entails repetitive manipulation of objects, repetitive speech, rocking and repetitive movements.

There are several combination of reasons or potential reasons leading the rise of challenging behaviour. Some are simple as that of an individual who runs away just because he or she cannot cope with crowds. Others entail a complex mix of factors such as biological causes. For example, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is associated with self-injuring behaviour because of the difference in how the brain handles hormones and chemicals. Some individuals would want to sustain the level of arousal or stimulation they want hence developing a stereotyped behaviour like rocking. Another factor is that this challenging behaviour could result as a way of communication. For instance, the need for comfort, drink or food could the reason behind this behaviour. Response to the environment is another reason for challenging behaviour. This entails over- or under-stimulation, poor physical environment especially extremes in noisy or temperature levels, inconsistencies in staff that includes training, approach, awareness and staffing levels. Lastly, challenging behaviour could be as a sign of pain, discomfort, frustration, anger, distress or abuse. At mealtimes, for instance, withdrawal of cooperation may be the only way available for showing emotions to a highly physically dependent person.

The aspects influencing challenging behaviour comprises of ill health, physical disability, alcohol and drugs, fatigue, sleep disturbance, sexuality, expectations and perceptions; social factors like ethnicity, culture and relationship

The potential impacts of challenging behaviour on health and social care organisations.

People suffering from challenging behaviour have the following impacts. These include memory problem, communication difficulty, alcohol and drug addiction. It also includes demand for more financial and emotional support, unable to get on with the carer, and they do not have contact with the neighbor, friend or family hence they are isolated. Due to mental illness and disability, they are prone to abuse. Since they are highly dependent on others, the degree of vulnerability towards abuse is increased. Because of different needs, it is quite difficult to take care of an adult. Their constant needs and demands lead to a state of abuse. Since it is stressful to take care of the elderly, the carer may become impatient therefore abusing the patient.

The following are some of the most important risk factors of challenging behaviour. These include depression among the caregivers, abuse of substances, social isolation, and illness among the elderly or intensity of dementia. It also includes inadequate support from the caregivers, the elder’s verbal and physical aggression and carer’s inability to cope and adjust to the stress.

Analysis of the Strategies for working with challenging behaviours associated with specific needs.

In the bylaw of social care worker, the code of practices, procedures, policies and legislation set the responsibility of the employer. It is at the national level where these standards are set. An employer of the social care is required to adhere to those set standards. In UK, there are four states where these codes are a key step to the establishment of a framework of control for social care. They have a task of ensuring that individuals working as social care providers do know their roles and responsibilities. Adequate and proper education should be given to these social care providers on how to handle vulnerable groups that need assistance from them. In addition to respecting the rights of service users, their behaviour should not harm the emotions of service users. In addition, they should maintain the trust and confidence of the community. Treatment of each patient should be in a respectful and individual manner. The universal social care committee has laid down many codes of ethics of social staff.

For the people with specific needs, the lawful partnership legislation have come up with a positive outcome in the form of providing the extra care. The social and health care workings are becoming more defined and inclusive over time in the form of provision of services to the people. These partnerships have assisted in construction of values and shared principles, identification of the agreed pool of resources and offering the capacity for sufficient development. It also includes the agreement in the specific shifts in the policies; giving more attention to mutual trust and attitude; and being ready to explore new options for services.

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