4. What is the ecological role of fungi in the global carbon cycle? What is glomalin? What enzymes allow fungi to digest lignin and cellulose?
5. Describe several ways that fungi affect the human food supply—describe both negative and positive aspects!
6. Describe several ways that fungi affect human health—both negative and positive aspects.
7. What evidence suggests that fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants?
8. Describe the basic morphology of fungi and variations in hyphal structure: surface area, nuclei, septa, fruiting bodies, spores, gametes, etc.
9. Describe the reproductive structures found in each of the 4 phyla of fungi. Spores, mating types, gametes, fertilization, plasmogamy, karyogamy.
10. Summarize the 4 types of life cycles for each of the fungal phyla with haploid, heterokaryotic, and diploid stages.
11. Understand and describe the ecosystem ‘services’ that green algae and plants provide: oxygen, soil, water, climate, food producers for the planet (not just for humans). Do not confuse this with ‘agriculture’.
12. Review the importance of fungal-plant symbioses
13. Describe plant products important to humans—e.g. agriculture, fibers, construction, etc. etc.
14. What are examples of pharmaceuticals that have come from plants?
15. Land Plant phylogeny: major morphological common traits and major differences between a) seedless avascular plants, b) seedless vascular plants, and c) seed producing vascular plants.
16. Plant fossils-how far back do they go? What are the 2 major intervals of plant evolution?
17. What is significant about the Carboniferous period?
18. Why are green algae—which are protists—so important to the evolution of plants?
19. KEY CONCEPT: What were the major adaptations that allowed plants to move from the water and colonize land?
20. How is a spore different from a seed?
21. Plants also had to adapt to reproducing on land—what ways do they accomplish this?
22. Understand alternation of generations: when are plants gametophytes? Sporophytes? Know this for bryophytes (mosses), seedless vascular plants (ferns), gymnosperms and angiosperms.
23. Understand that, with evolution, gametophytes changed from the dominant stage of a plant to becoming a tiny, microscopic part of a plant.
24. Describe the parts of a flower and why flowering plants have dominated the Earth.
25. How have flowers and pollinators co-evolved? Know an example.
26. What are the major differences between monocots and dicots in terms of flower, seed, leaf, vascular, and root structure?