Task A

Task A


COVID-19 has had a significant influence on the tourist business in Australia. People have been becoming ill as a result of the epidemic and the safeguards that have been put in place to prevent it from spreading. If the crisis continues for a lengthy period of time, the worldwide tourist sector might experience a 60 percent to 80 percent decline by 2020, according to estimates. The short term emphasis of governments is shifting away from immediate measures to strengthen the tourist sector and toward long-term strategies to make things better in the long run. Travel restrictions should be lifted, travelers should feel comfortable again, and the tourist industry should consider how it might adapt to a changing global economy are all examples of what should be done. In the wake of the coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic, the tourist industry is experiencing unprecedented difficulties. This is due to the fact that the pandemic struck so swiftly and did so much harm to the company. According to the latest COVID-19 impacts predictions, Australia’s domestic tourism is anticipated to decline by 60 percent by the year 2020. In December 2021, this figure increased to 80 percent as a consequence of the lengthy healing periods that occurred.

Affected by COVID-19, the tourist industry in Australia, which was already feeling the effects of the terrible summer bushfires, has been one of the hardest impacted businesses, accounting for around a quarter of all losses. Air travel restrictions, such as domestic and international flight restrictions, border closures, and recent outbreaks in Sydney and Brisbane, will cause a significant drop in business and pleasure travel in 2020, according to the World Tourism Organization. In the industry, there are some encouraging indicators, such as the fact that our states and territories have learnt how to deal with outbreaks, the prospect of travel bubbles, and the commencement of vaccine distribution in Australia and across the globe. Travel agencies and international air travel, for example, have been severely impacted by the pandemic and will have a difficult time returning to normal until the disease has been brought under control or removed altogether from the country. In addition, there are other enterprises that may alter their business models in order to increase domestic travel demand and capitalize on restless Australians who want to visit someplace else, but are unsure of which destination to choose. Foreign visitors departing the country and business travelers cutting down on their trip will leave a need that will be filled by Australians. This is beneficial to the nation. As foreign travel restrictions tighten, the adventurous attitude of Australians may prove to be a lifeline for the tourist sector, as more individuals may seek out opportunities to visit their own country. This has the potential to help the tourist business survive for many years to come.


Australia’s domestic tourism has seen a severe downturn since the introduction of the COVID-19 virus in 2001, with both the number of visitors and the amount of money spent on them plummeting rapidly. In the second half of 2020 and the first part of 2021, significant progress was achieved, but a series of outbreaks of the delta version of COVID-19 slowed or stopped the process. The impact of border restrictions and new health laws on domestic tourism was felt most acutely in the third quarter of 2021, when it decreased by more than half. The prolonged and strict lockdowns had a negative impact on all three states, but New South Wales, Victoria, and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) were especially heavily hit as a result of their forced confinement in their respective prisons. Since the 12th of October, the administration has progressively eased the limitations on movement and access. This is due to an increase in vaccination rates, which has coincided with a decrease in the number of cases of COVID-19. Many individuals believe that the December quarter of 2021 will be lucrative as a result of the recent rise in domestic overnight travel expenses. (See Fig. 1). This number is projected to rise when other state borders open in time for the Christmas season in other states.


Almost every year prior to COVID, states with significant cities and well-known tourist attractions witness a rise in foreign tourists. Australia’s most populated states and territory are also the most popular tourism destinations for international visitors. The state of New South Wales received 4.4 million tourists from countries other than Australia in 2019. When everything was said and done, New South Wales spent $11.4 billion on international trade transactions. In 2015, the state of New South Wales reported 96.6 million nights spent by tourists from other states. Victoria has welcomed 3.1 million international tourists as of January 1st, 2019. As a consequence, it is one of the world’s most visited cities. Queensland had 2.8 million tourists from all around the world this year. South Australia had 487,600 overseas tourists in 2019. The Northern Territory attracted 298,600 overseas tourists from other nations during the calendar year 2019. In the calendar year 2019, Tasmania had 282,900 tourists from all across the world.

Q.4 and 5

A direct result of the state-wide pandemic lockdown in early 2020, the number of domestic visitor overnight stays decreased drastically. The market for domestic tourism has begun to rebound to levels last seen in 2019. This was made possible by the easing of these restrictions (before the pandemic). During the period January to April 2021, domestic visitor nights spent were just 6 percent lower than they had been during the same time in 2019. However, they were 35% greater than they were at the same time in the same year the previous year. Several state lockdowns in response to Delta variant breakouts in various regions resulted in a decrease in the number of domestic visitor nights in the second half of 2021, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Because of this, it is projected that domestic tourism would grow at an exponential rate as well. Domestic visitation is expected to return to pre-pandemic levels in 2022-23, according to projections. After that, it is anticipated to reach such levels in 2023 and 2023-24. After suffering significant financial losses as a result of the COVID outbreak, tourism and hospitality businesses in Australia have begun the laborious task of rebuilding their operations. For a long time to come, the road will be bumpy and difficult.

Task B

Summary of the Article

Angelique Lu’s (2020) article focuses on how local governance is actively involved in attempts to ensure the tourism and hospitality sector bounces back to pre-covid period and better through an introduction of free classes and raining for business owners. Companies in the Mid-Western region that have been hit by the coronavirus may take advantage of free online courses provided by the Mid-Western Regional Council. People who live in the surrounding area and work in the tourism, hotel, and retail industries account for around 20% of total employment. As part of its efforts to support struggling businesses in the area, the council is organizing a crisis-management training session for business owners and managers. Students will have a better grasp of how to deal with the current economic situation as a result of this. Ms. Julie Robertson, the council’s director of development, said that the council’s goal is to help property owners in adjusting to digital needs. In addition, the council hoped to build a commercial platform for its members. Lu (2020) presents the move as an important step towards recovery, one that should be embraced by other local governments in Australia. By training company owners, employees, and other stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality sector, Australia can expect a more vibrant economy, one that will be able to perform key risk indicators and determine the best moves for businesses in the future to avoid losses such as those observed during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Reference to Economic Concepts

A consequence of COVID-19 was that employees at the organization were forced to alter their work habits very immediately. Despite initial concerns that the pressure would be too great, the tourist and hospitality sector has discovered that this new method of working might be a model for long-term success in the long run (Lim et al., 2021). COVID-19 provided an excellent illustration of what many business executives from across the globe are learning as a result of their participation. Each sector, industry, and function will have to transform itself in order to continue to expand and be successful in the long run (Pham et al., 2021). For example, in the tourist and hospitality sectors, finding a market is not as straightforward as it once was. If you own or operate a business in the tourism or hospitality industries, you must be a leader in terms of keeping profits high, investing in proven technology, and automating your processes and procedures.

New technology and new modes of working have already begun to alter professions and the abilities required to do them even before to the financial crisis. Every firm has to train its employees on how to cope with quickly changing circumstances, and every organization must find out how to match employees with new occupations and activities as the market changes (Volgger, Taplin, & Aebli, 2021). The dynamic extends beyond the concept of working from home and the use of artificial intelligence and automation. Specifically, the topic of this argument is how CEOs may reskill and develop their personnel in order to enable them to establish new firms in the post-pandemic future. Workers for a firm should possess skills that are essential for their jobs, such as digital and cognitive talents, as well as social and emotional competencies, flexibility and resilience. Companies need to grow in size and spend more money on their workers if they want to improve their employees’ learning outcomes. Businesses who possess this ability will be better equipped to cope with issues in the foreseeable future.

Implications of Business Owners and Stakeholder Training for the Tourism and Hospitality Industry

The COVID-19 virus is causing a wide range of problems for people. Curfews limit people’s ability to go to the store and bring stuff back into the house after dark. A number of items are in great demand, and firms are having difficulty keeping them on hand. Entrepreneurs have had to come up with new means to execute tasks, ranging from more mobile payments to e-commerce order placement and everything in between. The tourism industry has been hurt as a result of its dependence on conventional store purchases (Lim et al., 2021). In response to the financial crisis, digitalization has accelerated, resulting in a reduction in the number of needless physical encounters, even in the more traditional restaurant and hospitality sector. With training and classes for business owners, it is expected that issues that have impacted business owners and other stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality industry will be addressed.

In Australia, business owners faced hurdles including declining sales, operational challenges amongst new business operating models, financial strain, personal stress, and adopting to a new environment. As a consequence, people have come up with innovative methods to do their tasks. In certain situations, this has resulted in job changes, as well as changes in the way people do their duties. Other firms were forced to train their employees in new skills in order to stay up with the times as they adapted their operations to combat the sickness. As a result of the increased demand for domestic travel, airline firms were forced to educate their staff more extensively in order for them to be able to collaborate more effectively. Hotels were expected to train their personnel how to be pleasant while also use digital technology, new goods, and services to assist those who were not so kind in their interactions with them.

COVID-19 has altered not just the way people work, but also the way they buy, dine, and move about in the community. Because of the epidemic, it is possible that a large number of new employees may need to be taught. As a result of the epidemic, for example, more individuals are opting to shop online rather than in physical establishments (Pham et al., 2021). By using talent-marketplace solutions, firms may assist in closing the gap between what they have and what individuals need. These solutions bring together companies searching for new workers and individuals who are eager to improve their job prospects by learning new skills. Training will enable re-skilling of the workforce in order to help avoid a future crisis.


Lim, G., Nguyen, V., Robinson, T., Tsiaplias, S., & Wang, J. (2021). The Australian Economy in 2020–21: The COVID‐19 Pandemic and Prospects for Economic Recovery. Australian Economic Review, 54(1), 5-18.

Lu, A. (2020, April 20). Free classes for business owners “decimated” by coronavirus downturn. Council Introduces Free Classes for Mudgee Business Owners Hit by Coronavirus Downturn – ABC News; www.abc.net.au. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-04-20/mudgee-coronavirus-business-downturn-council-offers-free-classes/12163808

Pham, T. D., Dwyer, L., Su, J. J., & Ngo, T. (2021). COVID-19 impacts of inbound tourism on Australian economy. Annals of Tourism Research, 88, 103179.

Volgger, M., Taplin, R., & Aebli, A. (2021). Recovery of domestic tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic: An experimental comparison of interventions. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 48, 428-440.

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