The Components of a Quality Job
The Components of a Quality Job
Components of a Quality Job
The ‘quality of work’ is an imprecise concept that can be seen from several perceptions and fields and with differing emphases. There are a several terms related to job quality that are mostly applied interchangeably. These terms include good jobs, the quality of work life, decent jobs and decent work. Job quality is the degree to which features of paid employment promote the wellbeing of the workers in both their non-work and work fields. ‘Good jobs’ and ‘bad jobs’ are terms that are mostly used as comparative perceptions. Australia is among the countries with a well-defined evidence of a quality job improvement. The country has various institutions that ensure that the quality of the job is maintained at a high degree. Some aspects of HRM and other factors are viewed as important factors influencing the trends in job quality. The essay will describe the components of a quality job, evidence of quality job improvement and factors affecting trends in job quality in some countries
Components of a Quality Job
A good job is the one that has positive effects on the wellbeing of the holder. Specific features can be said to impact positively to the quality of the job if they directly related to the well-being of the worker as stated by Warhurst, Carre, Findlay & Tilly (2012). Various literature have identified the components of a good or bad job. The following factors determine the components of a good or a bad job. They include employment security, control and autonomy, a balance between rewards and efforts, social capital, earnings, intrinsic job qualities and job prospects. They also include employments benefits, work organization, skills and development, job demand and complexity, engagement and promotional and career opportunities according to Warhurst et al. (2012).
A large and different collection of job-related factors have been recognized as possibly affecting the work quality as stated by Warhurst et al. (2012). These factors are partitioned and grouped in such a way that they can be measured objectively or subjectively. These are the factors that are believed to affect the workers’ wellbeing and their families. In the macro dimension category, they include gender equality, health and safety at work, work organization, social dialogue, diversity, productivity and work-life balance (Findlay, Kalleberg and Warhurst, 2013). In the job security category, they include separation and redundancy rates, job tenure, protection from unfair job dismissal, job loss, wage cuts, missed promotions and future job. In the pay and fringe benefits category, they include absolute wage level, employment benefits such as annual and sick leave and relative wage level as affirmed by Gallie (2013). In the job development category, they include recognized access to training and promotional opportunities and framework of the training programs. In the workplace environment, they include the physical working conditions, risks related to the job, team spirit and workplace culture.
Evidence of whether there is Improvement of Quality of Job in Australia
Australia is a signatory to the International conventions that promote quality of job according to Australian Workplace Productivity Agency (2013). The key institutional characteristic of the labor market of Australia that affects job quality is the protection in the form of minimum employment standards and equity, mainly via the system of the award. Australia has a number of significant legislative and institutional mechanisms that enhance job quality either directly or indirectly. There are several main institutional and legislative mechanisms which specify the minimum standards in job features and support equality (AWPA, 2013). They include the Fair Work Legislation and Fair Work Australia Act (2009) and The National Occupational Health and Safety Frameworks. They also include The Equal Opportunity Act, Affirmative Action Act, and the Age Discrimination Act (AWPA, 2013).
Australia is a member of the international conventions that promote essential labor rights encompassing the right of freedom of fellowship and the right to participate in the abolition of forced labor (AWPA, 2013). Other conventions that Australia has approved encompass the anti-discrimination in the employment, same remuneration in employment and the convention of the forty hour week (AWPA, 2013). There are several other conventions that are associated with particular conditions that have been approved by Australia. Another support of the international policy that has effects on conditions of the employment and thus quality of the job is the agreements of the bilateral and multi-lateral trade (AWPA, 2013). Encompassed into these agreements are conditions and rights associated with employment.
The discussion regarding the job quality in Australia has led to the domination of two issues in the latest public debates. The first issue is that concerning insecurity of the employment (AWPA, 2013). There has been a rise in the temporary and casual organization employment which has been linked to increased employment insecurity. The other issue is the balance between private and work-life (AWPA, 2013). The Australian report indicates that the current working life of Australian is not clear. The government of Australian has established a number of surveys that investigate the improvement of job quality (AWPA, 2013). From this discussion, it is clear that there is an improvement in the job quality in Australia.
The Aspects of HRM or Other Factors Affecting Trends of Job Quality
There are various aspects of HRM that affect trends in the quality of the job in Sweden. One of the aspects is the motivation of the employees as stated by Sarfati (2014). HRM in Sweden offers both intrinsic and extrinsic job motivation. The intrinsic job motivation includes increasing job interest, skills development and promoting the initiative to work with the employees. The extrinsic job motivation includes good rewarding system, good working condition, employment benefits and many others. Motivation has affected the trend in job quality in Sweden where there is an increase in employees’ retention rates and increased job commitment. In the modern world, new technology has been incorporated in the working environment (Sarfati, 2014). HRM hiring trend has changed where they are hiring employees with a wide body of knowledge and skills to facilitate utilization of technology in the workplace. The HRM have also incorporated the integrative employment policies as measures for more employees’ motivation. They include training, promotion, organizational participation and job security. The HRM in Sweden have also introduced more flexibility in the workplace as affirmed by Sarfati (2014). They include task flexibility, flexibility in the working hours and pay flexibility. The HRM in Sweden has affected the trends in the quality of job through these strategies. Hence, it is clear that HRM have a significant role in influencing the trends of job quality.
Other factors that have affected the trend of job quality in Sweden mainly involve the country’s institutional environment stated by Cole (1989). The Swedish government has recently put a lot of emphasis on promoting research aimed at improving the working life and quality of work in Sweden Sarfati (2014). The Swedish government has a bill that supports research and innovation in the working life of its citizens (Cole, 1989). The bill states that research in the labor market is essential in order to get knowledge of how the reforms in policy influence the performance of the labor market. It also put emphasis on the significance of research in the occupational health services. There also other institutions concerned with research concerning the work life and quality of work of Swedish people. They include the Confederation of the Swedish Enterprise, The Swedish Trade Union Confederation (LO) and The Council for Negotiation and Cooperation (PTK) (Cole, 1989). These institutions have contributed a lot in influencing the trends in the quality of work of the Swedish people.
The quality of a job has a significant impact on the labor market. The quality of work affects the employees’ performance especially by decreasing or increasing their motivation. The importance of job quality, therefore, necessitates people to know the components of a quality work. Mostly, these components include the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation factors such as good reward system, personal interest, good working conditions, employments benefits and many others. There is evidence of the improvement of quality of work in Australia. The evidence is the presence of many institutions that control the quality of work in Australia. There are some aspects of HRM that affect the trends of job quality. These factors include the motivational strategies that managers apply to enhance employees’ retention and improve their productivity. Other factors like certain institutions also affect the trends in job quality by implementing job quality policies. The quality of a job is significant in ensuring retention of workers and improving their productivity.
Australian Workplace Productivity Agency 2013. Quality of Work Research Project Report, Curtin University HYPERLINK “http://www.awpa.gov.au/publications/Documents/MS4%20Report%20Final%20311013.pdf” http://www.awpa.gov.au/publications/Documents/MS4%20Report%20Final%20311013.pdf
Cole, R 1989. Strategies for Learning: Small Group Activities in American, Japanese and Swedish Industry, Berkely: University of CaliforniaPress.
Findlay, P., Kalleberg, A. and Warhurst, C. 2013. The Challenge of Job Quality, Human Relations, Vol 66 (4)
Gallie, D. 2013. Direct Participation and the Quality of Work, Human Relations, Vol 66 (4)
Sarfati, H. 2014. Nordic Lights–Work, Management and Welfare in Scandinavia, edited by Ake Sandberg, Stockholm: SNS Förlag, 2013, 512 pages. ISBN: 978-91-86949-37-2. Nordic Lights–Work, Management and Welfare in Scandinavia, edited by Ake Sandberg, Stockholm: SNS Förlag, 2013, 512 pages. ISBN: 978-91-86949-37-2. Relations industrials/Industrial Relations, 69(1), 229-232.
Warhurst, C., Carre, F., Findlay, P., & Tilly, C. 2012. Are Bad Jobs Inevitable? Trends, Determinants and Responses to Job Quality in the Twenty-First Century.
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