Chapter 4 – Attention
Terms from Roger’s Adventure with Attention
Attention- It signifies the concentration of awareness on some occurrence to the elimination of other stimuli.
Selective attention- Selective attention denotes the capability to give more attention to a limited collection of all available sensual information. It involves focusing on a certain object in the surroundings for a certain period of time.
Distraction- signifies something that takes away attention from what an individual is supposed to be doing.
Divided attention- it’s the brain’s ability to attend to two different stimuli at the same time and offer feedback to the many demands of the environment.
Attentional capture- it’s the occurrence whereby attention is involuntarily directed towards a target stimuli depending on the characteristics of the stimuli.
Visual scanning- signifies the ability to effectively, actively, and quickly search for information relevant to the surrounding.
Attention as Information Processing
Broadbent’s Filter Model of Attention- Broadbent suggested that physical physiognomies of messages are used to pick one message for more processing and that all others are lost. It was the partakers’ responsibility to pay attention on the message in one ear, known as the attended ear, and to repeat what they were hearing out loud.
Dichotic listening- Signifies the auditory procedure that implicates listening with all ears; the process of giving a message to one ear and a different message to the other ear
Shadowing- its whereby a person repeats aloud message word for word at the same time that message is being presented normally while other stimuli are presented in the background.
Dichotic listening experiments showed that there is probably a lesser population sex dissimilarity in auditory and perceptual asymmetries and linguistic laterality.
Broadbent (1958) asserted that physical features of messages are used to pick a distinct message for more handling whereby all the other messages get lost. The next step is that info from all the stimuli provided at some particular instance gets in a limitless capacity sensual buffer. According to him, stimuli are filtered, or chosen to be sorted at an initial phase all through processing. A filter might be considered as the selector of appropriate info depending on rudimentary characteristics, for instance direction of stimuli, pitch, or color.
Modifying Broadbent’s Model: More Early Selection Models
Mornay and other researchers did a dichotic listening experiment whereby the participants were told to shadow the message offered to a single ear and to disregard the one given to another ear. When he presented the hearer’s designation to the unattended ear, nearly a third of the contestants sensed it. They detected their names although according to Broadbent’s model, the filter is supposed to let just one message to pass, depending on its physical features. Evidently, the individual’s name was not filtered out, and most significant it had been evaluated well to conclude its implication.
Treisman suggested a change of Broadbent’s model and recommended that selection happens in two phases, and she substituted Broadbent’s filter with an attenuator. The attenuator evaluates the entering message in form of (1) its linguistic – the way message collects into words or syllables; (2) its physical features – whether it is fast or slow, high-pitched or low-pitches; and (3) its meaning – how sequences of words generate important phrases. The attenuator signifies a procedure and is not recognized with an exact brain structure. Treisman’s perception that the info in the channel selected is the same as what Broadbent suggested, but in her attenuation model of attention, linguistic and implication can also be used to distinguish the messaged.